Type IV Secretion Systems in Bartonella Species

Located in the Chr II-like segment in Bartonella species is an operon coding for type IV secretion system (T4SS) called the virB-D4 operon, which is positioned between the rRNA operons (Fig. 13.2). Another T4SS is encoded by the trw operon

13.6 The Chromosome II-Like Segment in Bartonella | 293

which is located downstream of the Chr Il-like region (Fig. 13.2). Many bacteria that live in close relationship with eukaryotic cells use T4SSs to transfer DNA and macromolecules to the host [71]. Both TFSSs in Bartonella are required for invasion of host cells, and both are recent imports to the Bartonella genome, with plas-mid conjugation systems as their closest relatives [72]. Knowledge about the origin and function of these systems is highly relevant to understanding how Bartonella adapted to its specific ecological niche.

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