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Concluding Remarks

The success of M. tuberculosis and other mycobacterial pathogens is undoubtedly a consequence of a finely tuned dialogue that has evolved over time between the pathogen and host. The availability of genome sequences from several mycobac-terial species has considerably enlarged our knowledge of these pathogens, and now makes it possible to explore their pathogenic lifecycle and evolution. This information will play a key role in the development of new therapeutic and preventive strategies to address the immense global burden of mycobacterial disease.

Acknowlegments

We are grateful to P. Brodin, C. Demangel, T. Garnier, T. Stinear, G. Hewinson, and S. T. Cole for advice and encouragement. This work was supported by the Association Française Raoul Follereau, the European Union (QLK2-CT-2001-02018), the Ministère de la Recherche et Nouvelles Technologies (ACI Microbiologie), and the Institut Pasteur (PTR 35, PTR 110, and GPH 5).

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