Contributions of Genomic Technologies to Antibacterial Research

The availability of complete genome sequences provided novel strategies for antibacterial drug discovery in pharmaceutical companies. The antibiotic classes currently in clinical application inhibit only a limited number of essential cellular functions (the ribosome, RNA polymerase, DNA gyrase, late stages of cell wall synthesis, and folic acid metabolism) [44, 45]. Agents inhibiting essential functions not yet addressed by clinically applied antibiotics would circumvent preexisting resistances. Thus, the pharmaceutical industry started to exploit genomic information on bacteria as early as possible, driven by the expectation of identifying numerous novel target structures (mainly proteins) which could be used in screening for novel inhibitory compounds.

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