The availability of entire genome sequences has further increased the popularity and predominance of mutational analysis for determining gene function and blazed a trail for the creation of comprehensive collections of mutants, which was previously unfeasible. The extremely profound impact of this tool in baker's yeast, where it helped to narrow the gap between sequence and function and may rapidly lead to the production of a global functional map, has prompted similar projects in many pathogenic microorganisms, despite the numerous inherent difficulties. Although it may be unrealistic to foresee the production of a global map of gene function in any pathogen, the widespread use of these libraries for exquisite in vivo or in vitro phenotypic analysis, which is still in its infancy in pathogenic microorganisms, is expected to expedite dramatically the unraveling of bacterial and fungal pathogenicity in the next few years and, hopefully, the design of novel antimicrobial therapies.

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