Concluding Remarks

Gene expression profiling is, with all the problems that such methods have, a very powerful tool with which to study global gene expression programs triggered by interaction between pathogens and hosts, and may lead to the generation of new hypotheses about the function of genes and single molecules as well as the function of complex signaling cascades during infections. Although such experimental approaches dramatically accelerate the gain of information in microbiology and infectious diseases, the bottleneck is in translating gene expression profiling into hypothesis-driven approaches which result in clearly proven functions of single genes and new ideas for diagnosing, treating, and preventing infections.

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