Computer analysis of the DNA histogram

The DNA histogram gives information about the G0 G1, S and G2 M phases of the cell cycle. Because of the width of the distributions in G0 G1 and G2 M Figure 3.3 Murine leukaemic cells (L1210) fixed in 70 ethanol, rehydrated and stained with PI. A plot of the peak of the red fluorescence signal vs. the integrated area discriminates between clumps (R2) and single cells (R1). The DNA histograms show the effect of setting a gate on region, R1. Data recorded on a Coulter Elite ESP Figure 3.3 Murine...

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Nucleolus Dense Fibrillar Component

Interphase Nucleolar Organiser Regions in Tumour Pathology Massimo Derenzini, Davide Trere, Marie-Francoise O'Donohue and Dominique Ploton The first work on interphase AgNORs in neoplastic pathology was carried out in 1986 by Ploton and co-workers (Ploton et al., 1986). The authors showed that, in a small series of prostatic tumours, the malignant cells were characterised by greater numbers of interphase AgNORs than the benign tumours. That study and especially the one that followed it, carried...

Oncogenes in breast cancer

Abnormalities in a number of oncogenes have been associated with breast cancer including HER2, SRC, MYC and RAS. HER2 (also known as NEU or ERBB2) is involved in the regulation of normal breast development and over-expression has been associated with breast cancer and subsequently with ovarian cancer (Slamon et al., 1989). HER2 amplification has been seen in 20 -30 of breast cancers. The clinical utility of HER2 has received considerable attention over the last 15 years. Initial studies showed...

Applications of ISH examples

In contrast to molecular biological techniques based on the analysis of nucleic acid extracts from tissues or cells, e.g. PCR, Northern or Southern blot hybridisation, ISH allows the detection of nucleic acids in their morphological context. In the following paragraphs selected examples of the application of ISH to the detection of DNA and RNA will be used to illustrate the power of this technique. No attempt is made to provide a comprehensive overview of the available literature, which would...