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Making and Keeping Friends

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Friendships at School and University

At the gymnasium in Dresden, his classmates Robert Hensel and Karl Baessler were Ernst's best friends. They remained in contact throughout their lives. Mayr visited Baessler 60 years later in Bamberg where, after having left Leipzig at the end of World War II, he had established a publishing company, and they corresponded until shortly before Baessler's death in 1990. Hensel became a metallurgist and later went to America where he lived in Indianapolis. However, they saw each other only once or twice after his arrival in the States. In Greifswald, during his first semesters, Ernst met one friend for life, Martin Hennig, and commented It is somewhat ironic that the best friend of my student days should be a theologian. But except for a few Christian dogmas, our thinking about man's obligations, about Among the PhD students he met at the Museum of Natural History Berlin was Emil Kattinger. They saw each other daily. He was a great help in Ernst's preparation for the PhD examinations...

Personality Disorder InterviewIV

A unique feature of the PDI-IV is that it is available in two separate versions, each with its own interview booklet. The PDI-IV Personality Disorders Interview Booklet arranges the diagnostic criteria and corresponding questions by personality disorder. The Thematic Content Areas Interview Booklet organizes the criteria and questions by thematic content. The nine topical areas are attitudes toward self, attitudes toward others, security of comfort with others, friendships and relationships, conflicts and disagreements, work and leisure, social norms, mood, and appearance and perception. Notably, the questions for each diagnostic criterion are the same in each interview form, but the organization is different. The modular approach easily lends itself to focused and rapid assessment of particular personality disorders of interest to the researcher or clinician. A screening questionnaire is not provided for the PDI-IV.

Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

Often described by others as workaholics, people with this disorder forgo pleasurable activities and friendships for the sake of productivity. Ironically, their productivity often suffers because the point of many activities is lost among the rules, regulations, lists, and schedules to which they scrupulously and conscientiously adhere. Delegation of responsibility or work to others is unheard of, usually for fear that the task will not be completed their way (the right way). Individuals with this disorder are controlled and controlling. They are emotionally constricted and have trouble expressing affection. They prefer an intellectualized and logical approach to life and relationships, devoid of spontaneity, creativity, and joy. They demand that others submit to their wishes and have a hard time considering alternative points of view. They frequently hoard their money, possessions, and feelings and are stingy in their spending on themselves. They are also unable to get rid of...

The Self Defeating Masochistic Personality

Though she has worked very hard, things somehow never work out for Theresa. She goes to school, works a full-time job, and takes care of the house, but sees herself as incompetent regardless of the effort put forth. Everything I touch falls apart. she says. Her performance at work is excellent, but she forgets to ask for a lighter load during midterms and has to call in sick, angering her coworkers. Then, her hard-fought grades sag because she allows herself to be scheduled for overtime during finals week. Sometimes, she takes classes that are too hard without the necessary prerequisites and has to give up and withdraw, forfeiting her effort completely. When her husband volunteers to find her a tutor and do the housework, she refuses, saying she doesn't want to burden him with responsibilities that are rightfully hers. Yet, despite her work, she always finds time to send birthday and holiday cards and even volunteers at church, but complains that no one follows up on her offers of...

The fear of being scooped

Can one become immune to scoopophobia An amateurish little survey suggests to me that some of those who have initiated new fields of inquiry in the neurosciences are more resistant to scoopophobia. Hence genuine self-confidence can obviously help, almost by-definition. (For a historical sampler of prioritymania among scientific giants, see Merton 1957.) Disregard for scoopophobia does not ensure that the fearless individual will be well remembered and cited. Actually, E.O. Wilson (cited in Weiner 1999) remarked that 'Progress in a scientific discipline can be measured by how quickly its founders are forgotten'. Another defence mechanism is the ostrich solution, namely, not to read the literature. Some of my best friends follow this practice. It might provide temporary, illusory relief, but also waste time and money and bounce back as a boomerang of unpleasant surprise. Not reading the literature might have been a privilege of the old days in neuroscience for example, Loewi (1936), who...

Cluster A personality disorders Paranoid personality disorder JLC

Personailty Disorder Table

Paranoid people lack confidence in others. They doubt the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends and partners, and check their behaviour repeatedly for evidence of malevolent intentions. They assume that others are not trustworthy, to the extent that they cannot believe it when friends demonstrate their loyalty. They withhold personal or significant information from friends, fearing that it will be used maliciously against them. They do not form close friendships and are often isolated. When in trouble, paranoids do not expect help from friends or others close to them instead, they expect to be attacked or ignored.

Letter 133 To Henry Fawcett

Many thanks for facts on neuters. You cannot tell how I rejoice that you do not think what I have said on the subject absurd. Only two persons have even noticed it to me--viz., the bitter sneer of Owen in the Edinburgh Review (134 1. Edinburgh Review, April, 1860, page 525.), and my good friend and supporter, Sir C. Lyell, who could only screw up courage to say, Well, you have manfully faced the difficulty. Well, it has been an amusement to me this first evening, scribbling as egotistically as usual about myself and my doings so you must forgive me, as I know well your kind heart will do. I have managed to skim the newspaper, but had not heart to read all the bloody details. Good God What will the end be Perhaps we are too despondent here but I must think you are too hopeful on your side of the water. I never believed the canards of the army of the Potomac having capitulated. My good dear wife and self are come to wish for peace at any price. Good...

Lineage Analysis by Single Cell Injection of Fluorescent Dextran

Labeling single cells in ovo by intracellular injection is not the sort of technique that can easily be learned by simply reading about it. It is much better to see the technique in action. This account will assume a basic understanding of intracellular recording technology and electrophysiological technique. If you do not have this, then make friends with a pharmacologist or neurophysiologist.

Cognitive content of anxiety disorders

Social phobia is characterized by exaggerated fears of being evaluated, of having one's weaknesses exposed, and of being judged adversely by other people. While in feared social situations, the social phobic continually monitors his or her performance, fears that this performance will be viewed as evidence that he or she is inept, boring, or stupid, and expects that such judgements will have dire long-lasting implications (loss of status or worth and failure to achieve key goals such as friendship, marriage, promotion). Often social phobics have excessively high standards for social performance (e.g. 'My speech must be perfectly fluent', 'I must always appear intelligent and witty'). Typically, social anxiety is triggered when individuals have a strong desire to convey a particular, favourable impression of themselves and have marked insecurity about their ability to do so.

Manager of Largescale Ornithological Projects Dr LC Sanford

The transfer of the Rothschild bird collections from Tring to New York as well as Mayr's employment by the AMNH in the early 1930s were due to the efforts of Dr. Leonard C. Sanford (1868-1950), a wealthy physician in New Haven, an influential member of the New York upper class society, and a Trustee of the AMNH (Murphy 1951 LeCroy 2005). He was not only the family doctor of many prominent families, but also a welcome associate as a splendid tennis player, an excellent bridge player, a superb raconteur, and a good friend (Fig. 3.2). Nobody ever wanted to disappoint him.

Earlyonset frontal damage

Prefrontal Cortex And Trauma

Most of these patients as young adults, long after the onset of their lesions. As in the adult-onset group, the cause is quite varied and the damage can be bilateral or unilateral (Fig. 4). And as with the adult-onset group, these patients are of normal intelligence and their sensory and motor skills, conventional memory, speech and language are normal too. As young children, they exhibit dysfunctional social interactions, both at school and at home. They show difficult behavior control and are insensitive to punishment. In spite of their normal intelligence, they usually need special schooling because of poor working habits. They do not make friends.

Beginning Lifestyle Change

Family members who eat the same healthy food and exercise together can be a strong support system for individuals with the dysmetabolic syndrome. Good friends, colleagues at work, the individual's physician, and others can play a major role in keeping motivation high. Social support systems work because supportive individuals serve as excellent role models, provide assistance in confronting and dealing with obstacles to change, and encourage self-acceptance 20 .

Lifestyles and social networks

Patterns of interaction with friends and neighbours in old age tend to reflect patterns established earlier in the life-course. Friendship is based on affinity and reciprocity. In the United Kingdom, middle-class people and women are more inclined to maintain relationships with friends. Working-class people tend not to distinguish between friends and neighbours. Most old people have friends living nearby, but with increasing age attrition rates among friends can be high. Even if they survive, access to friends can be attenuated by health, mobility, distance, and impaired hearing. The evidence suggests that most old people retain the capacity to make new friends throughout the lifecycle. However, with advancing age the nature of friendship may change. Early in old age friends tend to be of long standing, often representing different stages of the life course schooldays, young parenthood, work colleagues, or hobby companions. In the eighties and nineties, friends are likely to be 10 to...

Radical error avoidance and reenactment

Consider for example phobias, irrational fears and avoidance, regulated by the (persistent) representation of an object as extremely dangerous, when in fact it is not. A psychological explanation of the phobia, e.g. of enclosed spaces, would run as follows in the past the person has been exposed to real danger in a situation from which escape was or was thought to be impossible, and this representation of enclosed space as dangerous has generalized to all other (similar) enclosed spaces. The question arises as to why the representation is not modified by subsequent exposure to safe enclosed spaces. This example is of the kind emphasized by conditioning or behavioural theories. Consider another example of the kind emphasized in psychoanalytic theory, with its characteristic concern with interpersonal relations a person experiences persistent breakdown in intimate friendships. Examination reveals a pattern, one theme is that the person begins to act as if she were about to be rejected,...

Letter 31 Jd Hooker To Charles Darwin

Ibid., II., page 94. Huxley is speaking of Gordon's death, and goes on Of all the people whom I have met with in my life, he and Darwin are the two in whom I have found, etc.) The same point of view comes out in Huxley's estimate of Darwin's mental power. (32 5. Ibid., II., page 39.) He had a clear, rapid intelligence, a great memory, a vivid imagination, and what made his greatness was the strict subordination of all these to his love of truth. This, as an analysis of Darwin's mental equipment, seems to us incomplete, though we do not pretend to mend it. We do not think it is possible to dissect and label the complex qualities which go to make up that which we all recognise as genius. But, if we may venture to criticise, we would say that Mr. Huxley's words do not seem to cover that supreme power of seeing and thinking what the rest of the world had overlooked, which was one of Darwin's most striking characteristics. As throwing light on the quality of their...

Assessment of effects on the family

The parents, usually mothers, were compared using scores on stress questionnaires. Such an approach was too simple for a number of reasons. First, it ignored positive adaptation and was superseded by studies in which coping strategies within families were identified D providing a basis for intervention. Second, it ignored other life events and protective or compensating influences. Families with a retarded member are exposed to the same risk of adverse factors, such as poverty, divorce, unemployment, or mental illness as any other and, in most cases, will have the same strengths, such as humour, good friends, or staunch relatives as their neighbours. Third, the instruments employed mixed emotional or psychiatric symptoms with purely physical ones. All the complaints were added together as a measurement of 'stress'. Yet, backache was a very common symptom, but particularly in those parents with heavy lifting to do several times a day. The many influences, both positive and negative, on...

Letter 193 To V Carus

The following letter refers to the 4th edition of the Origin, 1866, which was translated by Professor Carus, and formed the 3rd German edition. Carus continued to translate Darwin's books, and a strong bond of friendship grew up between author and translator (see Life and Letters, III., page 48). Nageli's pamphlet was first noticed in the 5th English edition.)

Loss of capacity and dependence on help

But relationships can have malign as well as protective aspects, and sometimes the dependent partner suffers more disadvantages than benefits or, in extreme cases, abuse. Abuse of the elderly is much better understood now than a few decades ago, although systematic study is difficult because of the varieties of abuse or exploitation that can occur, the ambivalent relationships that surround them, and the concealment often practised by abusers and victims alike. (4) Abuse can occur in any circumstances, any class, and any relationship, from blood ties and friendships to professional and commercial relations. Nevertheless pointers to risk have been identified (Table 1).

Birding around New York City

In retrospect Mayr fondly remembered the field trips with other young ornithologists In those early years in New York when I was a stranger in a big city, it was the companionship and later friendship which I was offered in the Linnaean Society that was the most important thing in my life (1999j 3).

The Committee on Common Problems of Genetics Paleontology and Systematics 19421949

I knew Julian Huxley for a very long time as an ornithologist and we had met at international congresses and he was an enthusiastic outdoor birdwatcher so we got along just fine. Now Huxley was a really good friend we visited each other's houses and our wives were friends. My only criticism of him was that he was so full of ideas and plans that there was very little cohesion between the things that he did. His book,'Evolution. The Modern Synthesis' (1942) was very good in detail but was chaotic in its composition. I now know also why he used to come and visit me in New York. He would sit across the table from me. He would put out a pad and say 'Now Ernst, what's the latest in evolutionary biology ' I would tell him and he would eagerly scribble and then I think he worked it out in a little more detail, fed it to his secretary, she put it together and there was his book I'm exaggerating but you get the spirit. And so there really was very little in his 1942 book that was his original...

Life in New York City

5 The six German and one American young men who had shared this apartment at one time or other during the years 1932-1935 remained in contact with one another into the 1990s, and four of them (with their wives) met in North Bennington, Vermont in May 1986 to exchange memories and renew their friendship. Except for Gustav Stresow who became a publisher in Germany, all the others had remained in the United States. Stresow and Mayr were especially close because both had intellectual occupations and usually worked at home in the evenings. They corresponded into their nineties and occasionally met, when Mayr was in Europe.

Letter 42 To Mrs Lyell

I should have less scruple in troubling you if I had any confidence what my work would turn out. Sometimes I think it will be good, at other times I really feel as much ashamed of myself as the author of the Vestiges ought to be of himself. I know well that your kindness and friendship would make you do a great deal for me, but that is no reason that I should be unreasonable. I cannot and ought not to forget that all your time is employed in work certain to be valuable. It is superfluous in me to say that I enjoy exceedingly writing to you, and that your answers are of the greatest possible service to me. I return with many thanks the proof on Aquilegia (43 1. This seems to refer to the discussion on the genus Aquilegia in Hooker and Thomson's Flora Indica, 1855, Volume I., Systematic Part, page 44. The authors' conclusion is that all the European and many of the Siberian forms generally recognised belong to one very variable species. With regard to cirripedes, Mr. Darwin spoke of...

A tribute to Emma Jane

When Ben first attended the Child Development Centre as a tiny, immobile baby, parents were given the opportunity to sit and have coffee and leave their children to play with the toys whilst they chatted to other parents. Ben however made that difficult. He screamed incessantly and so I spent the majority of my time rocking him backwards and forwards in a bid to quieten him and give other parents and myself some peace. Other parents were sympathetic but Ben made far more noise than the other children .except for one little girl. She sat with flaming red cheeks and gave Ben a good run for his money Her mother and I got chatting amidst the howls and screams of Ben and Emma-Jane and we became good friends.

Personality and Self Reflection

A young college student presented for therapy, saying that she wanted to understand herself. When asked to define her issues more precisely, she was entirely diffuse and long-winded in her discourse, providing detailed minutia about the most trivial aspects of her friendships, oscillating from one notion to another in quick succession, overly dramatizing each fragment, but without going into anything too deeply. This may be described as a scattered cognitive style, as it covers much ground but says relatively little. This is often one of the functional domains of the histrionic personality pattern.

Contact with Geneticists

He and I argued by the hour about all aspects of evolution. What he did not like, was any printed criticism by his friends. Carl Epling once made the mistake of doing that and this was the end of their friendship. I have the feeling that verbal argument for Dobzhansky was like playing a game, but printed criticism was like an insult. For Dobzhansky everything

Generalized anxiety disorder

The worries should be multiple, not paroxysmal, and not focused on a single theme as in separation anxiety disorder. The onset is before 18 years of age. The major differential diagnosis is major depression because these disorders overlap markedly in diagnostic criteria. Therefore, care must be taken to elicit internalizing symptoms of negative cognitions about the self that are prominent in depressions (hopelessness, helplessness, worthlessness, suicidality), as well as those concerning the self in relation to others (embarrassment, self-consciousness) and associated with anxieties. Enquiry about eating, weight and energy, and interest should also be carried out to eliminate a mood disorder. Friendships may be less impaired in anxious conditions compared with depressions in this age range,

Ecology and Behavior of Birds

In the course of his efforts to introduce experimental biology, ecology and ethology into American ornithology, Mayr encouraged Margaret M. Nice (18831974) to write her two-volume monograph of the Song Sparrow, which made her famous. They had met at the annual AOU meeting in Detroit (October 1931) Thus started a warm and enduring friendship that became exceedingly important to me, she wrote in her autobiography (Nice 1979 109). Mayr was delighted to find an American interested in more than faunistic records and pretty pictures and started her reading the German Journal f r Ornithologie. Mrs. Nice lived in Columbus, Ohio where she had no chance to discuss her studies with other naturalists for she was excluded from the strictly masculine Wheaton Club. Mayr was present when, on his suggestion, she visited Berlin and the Museum of Natural History for ten days during the summer of 1932. Stresemann, similarly impressed with her work, published a detailed progress report in German in...

Preface from the Editor

Alzheimer's disease is a serious health concern in developed countries where the population is progressively aging. At the personal level, the diagnosis of the disease represents a devastating scenario for both the sufferer and the caregivers. In recent years, medications have been developed that mitigate somewhat the symptoms and delay, for a while, the progression of the disease. It is expected that in the coming years new medications will be developed that are capable of halting the chain of pathological events and symptoms of the disease. This book covers a wide range of the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the present and potential new therapies. The recent extraordinary advances in our understanding of the cell and molecular biology of Alzheimer's disease allow for an optimistic forecast of innovative therapies. I am glad that Andrea Malacuso, from Springer, asked me to edit a book addressing these issues. The opportunity allows me to contribute a little to the awareness of...

Isolation Of The Coxsackieviruses Group B

In 1962, an International Subcommittee on Virus Nomenclature was established to classify major groups of viruses on the basis of biochemical and biophysical properties.8 The work of this committee was a major event, because it allowed researchers and clinicians all over the world to compare findings, knowing that they were talking about a given virus. Thus, this virology classification became an international language that broke barriers and led to many friendships and collaborations across national borders. This international body introduced the term picornavirus to describe the small (pico)-RNA genome-nonenveloped viruses of human origin that included enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, and unclassified groups. Family status of the Picornaviridae was not achieved until 1973.9 Genus status for the enteroviruses was accorded in 1976.10

Acknowledgments for the First Edition

The author pays an affectionate tribute and extends his heartfelt gratitude to H. David Wilson, M.D., the eminent Dean and Vice President for Health Affairs, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, for his unyielding support, Solomonic wisdom, and genuine friendship in facilitating the completion of this book.

Evaluation Of The Potential Living Donor

The primary goal of the living donor evaluation is to ensure the safety and well-being of the donor (Table E11.1). Suitable living donor candidates include children, parents, and siblings of the patient with renal failure. Zero-haplotype matched donors should not be a contraindication to proceeding with a live donor transplant. Furthermore, persons with close emotional ties to the transplant recipient, including adopted siblings, spouses, and best friends, may be considered. It has been established that transplant outcomes in these aforementioned groups are superior to that occurring with cadaveric donors.14

Macrolevel linkages

There is reason to believe that the defensive motivation system also exerts an ongoing influence on social activity levels. In contrast to the appetitive system, which facilitates socializing, activation of the defensive system dampens social exploration. Previous work in other areas suggests that behaviorally inhibited children (that is, children who are fearful when confronted with novel persons or stimuli) are less likely to seek out new friendships and are considered shy by their peers (Kagan, 1998). Importantly, both adults and children who are vulnerable to depression have been found to have high scores on measures of defensive motivation (that is, behavioral inhibition) (Kasch et al., 2002 Rosenbaum et al., 2000). These findings are also consistent with the possibility that the high tonic activation of the defense system sets social activity levels at low prevailing levels. Indeed, consistent with the idea that individuals who are vulnerable to depression are highly tuned to...

New York and Tenafly New Jersey

When World War II broke out in August 1939, the British ornithologist David Lack (1910-1973) who was traveling in the United States happened to be a houseguest with Ernst and Gretel Mayr in Tenafly, New Jersey. They had long conversations and reflected on the certainty that the war would cause destruction and misery in many parts of Europe. Their friendship became deeper and stronger through this shared experience. During the first 2 years, communication with families and friends in Germany was maintained via Switzerland and Japan. When the United States entered the war in late 1941 exchange of letters was, of course, no longer possible and the question loomed large Would the American Museum be able to keep the German at his work or would they be forced to dismiss him At that time Mayr was sitting feverishly over his major work, Systematics and the Origin of Species (1942e), often far into the night. Later we found out, Gretel Mayr wrote in her reminiscences, that this aroused...

Conclusion

Acknowledgements First and foremost, I wish to thank Christian de Duve for willing to gamble on a young man from Hungary, offering him the possibility to start out in the New World, and providing friendship, inspiration, support, direction and criticism ever since. I wish to remember here Bronislav M. Honigberg, who generously shared with me his extensive knowledge and insight of trichomonad biology. I owe special acknowledgment to Donald G. Lindmark, who joined my efforts on trichomonads at the very beginning and was an equal partner in my early adventures in the world of amitochondriate eukaryotes. Many scientists, postdoctoral fellows and research associates participated in our work over the years and made critical contributions to this evolving story. The following were participants in the early stages of this work Tom E. Gorrell, David Lloyd, Steve R. Mack, Regis Marczak, John McLaughlin, Vincent N'Seka, Alexander Steinb chel, Geoff Turner and Nigel Yarlett. I express my sincere...

Seeing America

Even though he worked hard at the museum, often until late in the evening, Mayr took time off for birdwatching on weekends and to attend the annual meetings of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU), e.g., in Detroit (October 1931) and Toronto (August 1935). By 1933 he had already lectured at Yale and Princeton Universities. The first opportunity to see a different part of the States came in November 1931, when Richard Archbold, a research associate at the Department of Mammals, invited him to come along for a visit to Georgia, where his father had a quail hunting preserve at Thomasville. He paid all the expenses, including the airplane tickets. The small plane from Washington to Jacksonville, Florida, stopped at least once in each state. Beyond South Carolina, they persuaded the pilot to fly low over the coastal salt marshes to see the thousands of wintering swans, geese, and ducks. A limousine brought them from Jacksonville to Thomasville where they met Herb Stoddard, the director...

Reverse Genetics

In reverse genetics, the functional allele encoding a protein suspected of playing a role in the infectious process is replaced by a disrupted or deleted copy by exploiting the homologous recombination properties of the cell. The virulence of the resulting mutants is then compared to the virulence of the wild-type strain using suitable in vitro or in vivo models of infection 3 . If the mutant is significantly less virulent than the wild-type strain, the mutated gene is deemed to play a role in infection. In the pregenome era, the identification of potential virulence factors by bioinformatic methods was hindered by the scarcity of available sequence data. Instead, labor-intensive but elegant techniques were often required to identify a handful of candidate genes, whatever the pathogen studied. Well-characterized virulence factors from a particular pathogenic microbe were often used to design degenerate primers in order to assess the presence of a related sequence by poly-merase chain...

Information Sources

Information is the basis of all measurement and, therefore, the basis of all clinical assessment. Five broad sources of information are available to help describe the clinical problem each has its own advantages and limitations. The first source is the self-report inventory subjects literally report on themselves by completing a standard list of items. The second is the rating scale and checklist a person familiar with the subject completes this form in order to provide an alternative perspective. The third is the clinical interview the clinician asks the questions and the subject responds verbally, often in a free-form style. The clinician is free to follow any particular line of questioning desired and usually mixes standard questions with those specific to the current problem. The fourth source of information is the projective technique, an attempt to access unconscious structures and processes that would not ordinarily be available to the subject at the level of verbal report....

Letter 9 To C Lyell

I determined when last at Maer to try my chance, but I hardly expected such good fortune would turn up for me. I shall be in town in the middle or latter end of the ensuing week. (9 2. Mr. Darwin was married on January 29th, 1839 (see Life and Letters, I., page 299). The present letter was written the day after he had become engaged.) I fear you will say I might very well have left my story untold till we met. But I deeply feel your kindness and friendship towards me, which in truth I may say, has been one chief source of happiness to me, ever since my return to England so you must excuse me. I am well sure that Mrs. Lyell, who has sympathy for every one near her, will give me her hearty congratulations.

Peer influences

Beyond the family, relationships with peers are now recognized to provide a unique and essential contribution to children's social, emotional, and cognitive developmental2' Children show an interest in their peers very early in life, and growing cognitive abilities and language skills lead to increasingly complex and co-ordinated interactions across the preschool years. By the end of this period most children have at least one reciprocated friendship. In childhood and adolescence, peers take on increasing importance in middle childhood, more than 30 per cent of children's social interactions are with peers, and adolescents are estimated to spend more than twice as much time with peers than they do with parents or other adults. The functions of friendship change with development, expanding to encompass companionship and stimulation, help and sharing, social and emotional support and intimacy.

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