Wildmen

In this category are included seventy-two types of human-sized (5 feet-6 feet 6 inches tall), hairy, bipedal humans that may represent the survival of hominid species other than modern Homo sapiens. A widespread tradition of such creatures exists on five continents, especially in Asia, which is home to more than half of the named varieties. North America is conspicuously absent, although it has GIANT HOMINIDS, Hairy Bipeds, and North American Apes in abundance.

A surviving group of Neanderthals (Homo ne-anderthalensis) might account for some Wild-man sightings. These cold-adapted archaic humans lived in Europe as far west as Britain and in Asia as far east as Uzbekistan during the Late Pleistocene, 100,000-30,000 years ago. Their physical characteristics included a flat, low cranium; a bulging occipital lobe at the back of the skull; enlarged, broad nostrils; swept-back cheekbones; large teeth, especially the incisors; strong jaws; no chin; strong musculature; and thick bones. The average height for males was 5 feet 6 inches and for females 5 feet 3 inches. Males weighed more than 140 pounds, while females were lighter, at 110 pounds. Neanderthal cranial capacity was greater than ours, averaging more than 1,450 milliliters (modern humans average 1,300 milliliters). There is good evidence that they buried their dead, cared for disabled individuals, communicated in a limited way, hunted large animals, and produced primitive stone tools (Mousterian culture). Neanderthals probably originated in Europe from archaic humans of the Middle Pleistocene, 350,000-150,000 years ago, perhaps represented by the fossils found at Swanscombe in England, Steinheim in Germany, and Fontechevade in France. Though not currently

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considered ancestral to modern humans, the two groups did coexist for several thousand years and probably had some cultural or genetic exchanges. Asian Neanderthal fossils have been found in Israel, Syria, Iraq, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Although Mousterian toolkits have been discovered elsewhere, these were not exclusively Neanderthal and may have been produced by early modern humans.

Another leading Wildman candidate is Homo erectus, an early human that evolved in Africa about 2 million years ago, then spread into Asia and parts of Europe. The first fossil was found at Trinil in Indonesia by Eugene Dubois in 1890 and was known for a long time as Pithecanthropus erectus or Java man. More extensive material was discovered in Zhoukoudian Cave, near Beijing, China, in the 1920s and in Sangiran and other Javan sites in the 1930s and later. Since then, evidence for an erectus presence has been found in Algeria, Morocco, Tanzania, Kenya, Georgia, and Western Europe. Possibly the most recent erectus artifacts and remains come from Selungur Cave, Kyrgyzstan, and are dated at 125,000 years ago. Erectus skulls are long and low, with heavy browridges and large jaws. Cranial capacity spanned from 800 to 1,000 milliliters. Evidence from East Africa indicates erectus had a slender, upright frame and stood around 5 feet 7 inches tall.

Most reported Wildmen seem to be more primitive physically and culturally than modern Homo sapiens, represented by the Cro-Magnon culture in Europe. There have been many finds of jaws, skulls, and other skeletal material that show apparent transitional forms between Homo erectus and sapiens. Characteristics are usually described in comparison to erectus fossils (less prognathism, reduced robusticity, lightened browridges). Cranial capacity ranges from 1,000 to 1,400 milliliters. European specimens include the Mauer mandible from Germany (sometimes characterized as H. heidelber-gensis) and the Petralona, Greece, cranium, which shows both erectus characteristics and more advanced features. Other fossils have been found in Azerbaijan, Morocco, Ethiopia, South Africa, Tanzania, India, Indonesia, Siberia (Denisova Cave), and China. Collectively called "archaic Homo sapiens" fossils, there is too much variation to assign them a species name; some indeed may turn out to be erectus or sapiens. Very little postcranial material has been discovered, so it is difficult to specify height or weight. Few of these fossils have been precisely dated, but they are thought to occur within the Middle Pleistocene, 500,000200,000 years ago.

Homo habilis was an early East African ho-minid contemporary with the apelike yet upright australopiths in the Late Pliocene, 1.9-1.6 million years ago. Although it had a larger cranium (610 milliliters on average), smaller teeth, and a more humanlike foot skeleton, it only weighed an average of 66 pounds and looked more australopithecine than human.

Notice that all the preceding types are from the Old World. There is no evidence at all that humans evolved anywhere in the Americas. A flourishing of early primates took place in North America from 66 to 28 million years ago, but these had either disappeared or moved into South America by 27 million years ago as the ancestors of the New World monkeys. Fully modern humans were the next visitors to the Americas some 40,000 years ago, leaving no known explanation for American BIGFOOT and Cannibal Giant traditions unless they followed the Bering land bridge from Asia like the Paleo-Indians.

Mystery Wildmen

Africa

Agrios Anthropos; Akephalos; Antipodes; Bilungi; Brachystomos; Gorillai; Hy-LOPHAGOS; ICHTHYOPHAGOS; KlKOMBA; SCIA-pod; Troglodyte; Vadoma; Woadd-el-Uma

Asia, Central

Adam-Ayu; Adam-Dzhapais; Almas; Ban-Manush; Bar-Manu; Dev; Farishta; Gere-sun Bamburshe; Golub-Yavan; Gul; Har-rum-Mo; Keedieki; Khun-Goruessu; Ksy-Giyk; Lechy; Nasnas; Shaitan; Yabalik-Adam

Asia, East Mao-Ren; Ye-Ren

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Asia, Southeast

B'lian; Minnesota Iceman; Nguoi Rung; Orang Ekor

Asia, West

Abnauayu; Adlekhe-Titin; Agatch-Kishi; Almasti; Dav; Enkidu; Gulebaney; Kaptar; Keshat; Pare; Tskhiss-Katsi

Australasia and Oceania

COROMANDEL MAN; MAEROERO; YAHOO; Yowie

Central and South America Calchona; Cax-Vinic; Chiparemai; Mari-

coxi; MatuyU; Mohan; Salvaje; Vasitri; Yeho

Europe

Basajaun; Homo ferus; Man-Monkey; Pan; Quickfoot; Satyr; Sumske Dekle; Urisk; Ved; WudewAsa; Yagmort

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