Bangs's mountain squirrel. Syntheosciurus brochus. Fur is grizzled-brown above, grayish-orange below. First collected in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Panama, in 1902; later found in Costa Rica in 1984.

Bavarian pine vole. Microtus bavaricus. Rare Alpine vole first described in 1962 from Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, and most recently found in Austria in 2001.

Bristle-spined porcupine. Chaetomys sub-spinosus. Brown, short-legged Brazilian porcupine with short spines on its head and shoulders and long bristles on its back. First described in 1818 but rarely seen since then. Rediscovered in 1986 near Valen^a, Bahia State, by Ilmar Bastos Santos.

Brush-tailed rat. Isothrix sinnamariensis. A new species of tree rat discovered in French Guiana in 1997.

Cajas water mouse. Chibchanomys orcesi. First described in 1997, this small, nocturnal, nearly blind mouse is endemic to the Cajas Plateau, Ecuador. It uses its sensitive whiskers to locate fishes and other food.

Candango mouse. Juscelinomys candango. Discovered in 1960 and described in 1965 on the basis of nine animals found on the grounds of the

Parque Zoobotanical in Brasilia, Brazil. Not seen since 1990, despite intensive searches.

Central American water mice. Semiaquatic, dark-brown mice that prefer clear, mountain streams. Goldman's water mouse (Rheomys raptor) is found in Costa Rica and Panama and was first described in 1912. Thomas's water mouse (R. thomasi), found in Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador, was described in 1928. The Mexican water mouse (R. mexicanus) was described in 1959.

Central rock rat. Zyzomys pedunculatus. Only five specimens of this arid-zone Australian rat were recorded between its discovery in 1896 and 1960. In 1996 and 2001, the animal was found in the Macdonnell Ranges, Northern Territory, Australia.

Chinese dormouse. Chaetocauda sichuanensis. Dormouse with a thick-haired, club-shaped tail. Known from only two female specimens found in 1979 in northern Sichuan Province, China. Some consider it a Forest dormouse (Dryomys sp.), but it occurs 1,200 miles farther east than any of this genus.

Crump's mouse. Diomys crumpi. Blackish-gray mouse first discovered on Mount Parasnath in Bihar State, India, in 1917.

Cuban hutias. Medium-sized rodents with dense fur, short legs, and hairy tails that are endemic to Cuba. Cabrera's hutia (Mesocapromys angelcabrerai) is known only from specimens collected in mangrove forests of the Cayos de Ana María; it was described in 1979 and is unusual among hutias in being sexually dimorphic. The Dwarf hutia (M. nanus) is the smallest hutia, discovered in the Ciénaga de Zapata in 1917; it's not been seen since 1937, but its tracks and feces have been found recently. The Large-eared hutia (M. auritus) was first described in 1970 and is known only from Cayo Fragoso. The San Felipe hutia (M. sanfelipensis) is known only from four specimens collected in 1970 from Cayo Juan García. A single specimen of Garrido's hutia (Mysateles garridoi) was discovered in 1967 on Cayos Maja; two animals turned up on nearby keys in 1989.

Desert dormouse. Selevinia betpakdalaensis. Small, grayish dormouse with a round, stocky body and a long tail. Discovered in 1938 by Viktor A. Selevin in the Betpak-Dala Desert, southern Kazakhstan.

Dinagat bushy-tailed cloud rat. Crateromys australis. Rough-furred, gray rat, about 10 inches long, with a gray-and-white, 11-inch tail. Known from only one specimen obtained in 1975 on Di-nagat Island in the Philippines.

Dollman's tree mouse. Prionomys batesi. Brownish tree mouse with velvety fur, described in 1910. Recorded only from Cameroon and the Central African Republic.

Fish-eating rats. Semiaquatic rats with thick, dark fur and very limited ranges. The Montane fish-eating rat (Neusticomys monticolus) was found in Pichincha Province, Ecuador, in 1921. The Venezuelan fish-eating rat (N. venezuelae) was discovered near the Rio Neveri, Venezuela, in 1929. The Peruvian fish-eating rat (N. peruviensis) was found in 1974 in Balta, Peru. Oyapock's fish-eating rat (N. oyapocki) was discovered in 1978 near Trois Sauts, French Guiana.

Golden hamster. Mesocricetus auratus. Hamster with a compact, rounded body; short legs; thick, golden-brown fur; large ears; and large cheek pouches. This common and popular pet was first mentioned in the 1797 edition of The Natural History of Aleppo by Alexander Russell, who thought it was the same as a European hamster. George Robert Waterhouse described it as a new species in 1839 after he obtained a skin. Live specimens were taken to England in 1879 but apparently were not bred successfully. The species was rediscovered and possibly saved from extinction on April 12, 1930, when an adult female and eleven young were found in Halab, Syria, by zoologist Israel Aharoni. Aharoni's specimens and their descendents quickly became popular as laboratory animals. Most pet hamsters are the offspring of three specimens from Hebrew University's parasitology department in the 1930s. A few wild specimens have been found in Syria since 1971.

Hairy-tailed rats. Philippine genus of rats with an elongate skull and relatively short tail covered with fine hairs. The Large-toothed hairy-tailed rat (Batomys dentatus) is a buff-colored rat known from one specimen collected in Benguet Province, Philippines, in 1911. The Mindanao hairy-tailed rat (B. salomonseni) is a darker rat discovered on Mount Katanglad, Bukidnon Province, in 1951. The Dinagat hairy-tailed rat (B. russatus), found on Dinagat Island, was described in 1998.

Hartweg's soft-furred mouse. Praomys hartwigi. Only a few specimens are known from Nigeria and Cameroon. First described in 1969.

Ilin bushy-tailed cloud rat. Crateromys paulus. A 10-inch rat with short, dark, coarse fur, known from a single specimen found in 1981 on Ilin Island, off Mindoro, Philippines. Feared extinct.

Inca tomb rat. Cuscomys ashaninka. Large tree rat discovered by Louise Emmons in 1997 in the Peruvian Andes. She concluded that it and the rats that the Incas ceremonially buried with human dead 500 years ago are closely related and that the latter still may exist in the mountains.

Jackson's fat mouse. Steatomys jacksoni. Dark, 5-inch mouse with white hands and feet. Builds up body fat in order to estivate. Discovered in 1936 in a forested area (now destroyed) of the Ashanti region, Ghana, though other specimens have been found in southwestern Nigeria and Togo.

Koopman's porcupine. Coendou koopmani. Brazilian porcupine that is just over 12 inches long with a tail of equal size. Spines black with a speckled appearance. First described in 1993; found south of the Amazon from the Rio Madeira east to Belem.

Lakeland Downs short-tailed mouse. Leggad-ina lakedownensis. One of the smallest Australian rodents, this nocturnal mouse was discovered in 1969 in northern Queensland and was found later in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

Lesser Sulawesian shrew rat. Melasmothrix naso. Small rat with dense fur and a long snout found in 1918 at Rano Rano in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Limestone rat. Niviventer hinpoon. A nocturnal, buff-gray rat with spiny fur, discovered in 1973 and found only in limestone caves in Saraburi and Lop Buri Provinces, Thailand.

Meadow voles. Voles resemble mice but are more heavily built. The tail is short, with sparse hair. The Muisk vole (Microtus mujanensis) was described in 1978 from specimens found in a single area near the Vitim River, Siberia. The Tarabundi vole (M. oaxacensis) was discovered in north-central Oaxaca State, Mexico, in 1960. Several other species of Microtus were described in the twentieth century, but some of these were the result of species confusion and reclassification.

Mindanao mountain rat. Limnomys sibuanus. Medium-sized rat with long, tawny fur. Known from four specimens found in 1904 and 1906 on Mount Apo on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines.

Mindanao shrew rat. Crunomys melanius. Small rat with spiny fur discovered in 1906 on

Mount Apo in the Philippines. One other specimen was collected in 1923.

Mindoro climbing rat. Anonymomys mindoren-sis. A tawny-brown rat known from three specimens collected in the 1970s from Ilong Peak, Mindoro, Philippines. Described in 1981.

Mt. Kahuzi climbing mouse. Dendromus kahuziensis. Large-headed mouse with a long, semiprehensile tail, known only from a single specimen found at Mount Kahuzi, Democratic Republic of the Congo; described in 1969 by Fritz Dieterlen.

Neill's long-tailed giant rat. Leopoldamys neilli. Large rat found on remote limestone cliffs in central Thailand and described in 1977.

Northern water rat. Paraleptomys rufilatus. Small rat described in 1945. Known only from the North Coast Ranges in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, and adjacent Papua New Guinea.

Pacarana. Dinomys branickii. The third-largest living rodent (up to 3 feet 3 inches in length). First described in 1873 but thought extinct until rediscovered in 1904 by Emil Goeldi. Lives in the Andean foothills from Colombia to Bolivia and in the Amazon lowlands of Peru and western Brazil.

Panay bushy-tailed cloud rat. Crateromys heaneyi. Brown, tree-dwelling rat with a black tail, discovered in 1987 on Panay Island in the Philippines. Described in 1996.

Pilliga mouse. Pseudomys pilligaensis. First identified in 1975, this small mouse is found only in a limited area of scrubland near Narrabri in northern New South Wales, Australia.

Pittier's crab-eating rat. Ichthyomys pittieri. Aquatic rat described in 1963 from four specimens obtained in the Venezuelan coastal range.

Roraima mouse. Podoxymys roraimae. Mouse with long, dark-slate fur, known from only five specimens obtained in 1929 from the summit of Mount Roraima, Venezuela.

Rosevear's striped grass mouse. Lemniscomys roseveari. Brown mouse with white stripes discovered in 1980 in Zambia.

Ruschi's rat. Abrawayaomys ruschii. Blackish-gray rat, 6 inches long, with dense, spiny fur. Described in 1979; known only from three specimens from Espirito Santo State, Brazil.

Setzer's mouse-tailed dormouse. Myomimus setzeri. Dormouse with thinly haired, mouselike tail, found in northwestern Iran. Described in 1976.

Silver rice rat. Oryzomys argentatus. Silver-gray marsh rat, 5 inches long with a tail of equal length, discovered in the Florida Keys in 1973.

Spiny mice. Three similar species of small South American mice with spiny fur. The South American spiny mouse (Scolomys melanops) was discovered at Mera, Ecuador, in 1924. The Ucay-ali spiny mouse (S. ucayalensis) was found along the Rio Ucayali, Peru, in 1991. The Jurua spiny mouse (S. juruaense) was collected on the Rio Jurua, Brazil, in 1995.

Tate's shrew rat. Tateomys rhinogradoides. Short-haired, brown rat discovered in Sulawesi, Indonesia, in 1930 and not described until 1969.

Velvet climbing mouse. Dendroprionomys rous-seloti. Velvety-furred, brownish mouse described in 1966 and recorded only from zoological gardens in Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo.

Vespucci's rat. Noronhomys vespuccii. A large rat reported in 1501 by Amerigo Vespucci on the Ilha Fernando de Noronha in the South Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of Brazil. Vespucci was thought to have been mistaken until 1999, when subfossil remains of this extinct native rat were described by Michael D. Carleton and Storrs L. Olson.

Vizcacha rats. Two new genera of octodontid rats from remote salt flats in Argentina were described in 2001—the Chalchalero vizcacha rat and the Golden vizcacha rat.

Woolly forest dormouse. Dryomys laniger. Discovered in 1968 and known only from the Taurus Mountains in southwestern Turkey.

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