Red Wolf

Mystery Dog of Western Europe.

Variant names: Chien rouge, Loup rouge, Loup-brou.

Physical description: Like a wolf, except for its red fur. Bright eyes.

Behavior: Attacks animals but avoids humans.

Distribution: Vienne Department, central France.

Source: Henri Ellenberger, "Le monde fantastique dans le folklore de la Vienne," Nouvelle Revue des Traditions Populaires 1

Mystery Primate of East Asia.

Etymology: Mandarin Chinese (Sino-Tibetan), "man-bear."

Variant names: Gin-sung, Huan, Jen-hsiung.

Physical description: Height, more than 3 feet when standing. Quadrupedal shoulder height, 16-20 inches. Covered with black, gray, or brown hair. Round head, about 6-7 inches long. Curly head-hair. Face looks human. Flat mouth. Hands and feet have nails. Toenails are flat. No hair on the buttocks. Short tail, if any.

Behavior: Walks on all fours with a rolling gait. No language but can laugh. Eats raw meat, corn, wild fruit, bark, bamboo shoots, grass, and leaves. In former times, these creatures were hunted in order to capture and domesticate them for household and herding chores.

Distribution: Zhejiang Province, Shaanxi Province, Shennongjia Forest in Hubei Province, and western Yunnan Province, China.

Significant sightings: A Jen-hsiung was captured in 1954 when hunters aroused its curios ity with a piece of red cloth.

On May 23, 1957, a 5-foot-tall wild monkey or WlLDMAN attacked Wang Congmei on her way home from tending cattle in the Jiulong Mountain area, near Zhuantang, Zhejiang Province. Her screams brought help, and village women struck the creature with a sticks and forced it into the mud of a rice paddy, where it got stuck. They beat the animal senseless, finally chopping off its head. Its hands and feet were taken to town for a reward and preserved by a teacher, Zhou Shousong, who allowed them to be examined by Zhou Guoxing in 1980. His analysis showed that they belonged to an extraordinarily large stump-tailed macaque.

Possible explanation: An outsize Stump-tailed macaque (Macaca arctoides) or the larger Père David's macaque (M. thibetana). Macaques are diurnal and both arboreal and terrestrial. They have quite complex social and behavioral systems. Some use tools. Group size can vary from 10 to around 100 individuals. The animals can be very aggressive, both to each other and to other species. Stump-tailed macaques are feared by locals. They tend to be the dominant species whenever they are found in association with other monkeys. They have a wide range of vocalizations and also communicate by gesture and facial expressions. These calls and gestures apparently have specific meanings.

Sources: Bernard Heuvelmans and Boris F. Porshnev, L'homme de Néanderthal est toujours vivant (Paris: Plon, 1974), p. 142; "Scientists Find Nearly Perfect Remains of 'Zhuantang Ape-Man' Killed in 1957," Pursuit, no. 54

(1981): 64-66; Zhou Guoxing, "The Status of Wildman Research in China," Cryptozoology 1

(1982): 13-23; Paul Dong, The Four Major Mysteries of Mainland China (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1984), pp. 173, 191-193; Zhou Guoxing, "Morphological Analysis of the Jiulong Mountain 'Manbear' (Wildman) Hand and Foot Specimens," Cryptozoology 3 (1984): 58-70; Michael K. Diamond, "New Macaque Hypothesis Not Supported," Cryptozoology 4 (1985): 113-114; Mark A. Hall, The Yeti, Bigfoot and True Giants (Minneapolis, Minn.: Mark A. Hall, 1997), p. 46.


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