Primates

.Allen's swamp monkey. Allenopithecus ni-groviridis. Olive-green swamp guenon first described in 1907 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Bernardi's titi. Callicebus bernardi. A cat-sized monkey with dark-orange sideburns and chest discovered in 2001 by Marc Van Roosmalen between the Rio Madeira and Rio Aripuana, Brazil.

Black-crowned dwarf marmoset. Callithrix humilis. Tiny monkey, only 6 inches long with a 9-inch tail, discovered by Marc Van Roosmalen in

Manaus, Brazil, in 1996 and described in 1998. It is found on the west bank of the lower Rio Aripuana and the east bank of the Rio Madeira.

Black-faced lion tamarin. Leontopithecus cais-sara. Small, gold-and-black monkey weighing only 21 ounces, first documented on the island of Su-peragui, Paraná State, Brazil, in 1990 by Lucia Lorini and Vanessa Persson.

Black-headed marmoset. Callithrix nigriceps. Small, brown monkey found east of the Rio Ji-paraná and Rio Madeira and west of the Rio Aripuana in western Brazil. First described in 1992.

Blackish squirrel monkey. Saimiri vanzolinii. A dark-haired monkey found between the Rio Japurá and Rio Amazon in Brazil and described by Marcio Ayres in 1985.

Bonobo. Pan paniscus. Also known as the Pygmy chimpanzee, the bonobo is the most intelligent nonhuman primate. It was recognized as distinct in 1929 by Ernst Schwarz and given species status in 1933. Shorter and more slender than the Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), with longer hind legs, it ranges in height from 3 feet 4 inches to 5 feet 8 inches. The face is completely black and flatter than the chimpanzee's. The ears are smaller, the teeth more humanlike, and the forehead higher and more domed. The hair on the scalp is splayed and flat. It spends more time in a bipedal position, is more arboreal and acrobatic, and has a larger vocabulary than the chimpanzee. Captive specimens have been known to laugh out loud. It shows no fear of humans, even when freshly caught, and allows itself to be touched without flinching. The bonobo is found south of the Congo River between the Yekokora and Lomako Rivers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. An isolated group also exists in the mountains on the southwest side of Lake Tanganyika. Frans de Waal, Bonobo: The Forgotten Ape (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997).

Coimbra-Filho's titi monkey. Callicebus coim-brai. Discovered in Sergipe State, Brazil, in 1994 and described in 1999 by Shuji Kobayashi and Aifredo Langguth. Its name honors Brazilian primatologist Aldemar Coimbra-Filho.

Delacour's langur. Trachypithecus delacouri. Leaf-eating monkey with white cheek bands that was first described in 1932. Found in Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam.

Dian's tarsier. Tarsius dianae. First described in 1991 from the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia.

Dryas monkey. Cercopithecus dryas. Small monkey with a brown back, white chest, and black limbs and face, described in 1932 by Ernst Schwarz from a juvenile specimen in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Complete adult specimens were found only in 1985.

Dwarf lemurs. Five new species from Madagascar—the Southern dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus adipicaudatus), the Furry-eared dwarf lemur (C. crossleyt), Sibree's dwarf lemur (C. sibreei), the Large iron-gray dwarf lemur (C. ravus), and the Lesser iron-gray dwarf lemur (C. minisculus)— were described in December 2000 by Steve Goodman and Rodin Rasoloarison.

Emperor tamarin. Saguinus imperator. Distinctive white-mustached South American monkey named by Emil Goeldi in 1907.

Goeldi's monkey. Callimico goeldii. Anomalous little, dark-brown monkey first described in 1904 by Emil Goeldi. Its skull exhibits some features of Old World monkeys. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, western Brazil, and Bolivia.

Golden bamboo lemur. Hapalemur aureus. Ra-nomafama National Park in Madagascar was established to protect this lemur after its discovery in 1985 by Corine Dague.

Golden-brown mouse lemur. Microcebus rav-elobensis. Small lemur discovered in 1997 in the Ampijoroa Nature Preserve, Madagascar.

Golden-crowned sifaka. Propithecus tattersalli. Photographed in northeastern Madagascar in 1974 by Ian Tattersall but not described until 1988. One of the most threatened lemurs, it is confined to the area around Daraina.

Golden-headed langur. Trachypithecus polio-cephalus. Rare leaf-eating monkey found only on Cat Ba Island in Halong Bay, Vietnam. Recognized as a distinct species in 1998 when a live specimen was studied under optimal conditions at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam. A 2000 survey showed there may be less than ninety specimens in the wild.

Golden langur. Presbytis geei. Cream-colored monkey observed occasionally in Assam State, India, and Bhutan since 1907. Formally described in 1956 by H. Khajuria.

Gray-shanked douc langur. Pygathrix cinereus. Six male specimens were found from 1995 to

1998 in Vietnam's Central Highlands and have since been considered distinct from the two other species of douc langur.

Greater bamboo lemur. Hapalemur simus. Short-legged, thickset lemur with a bushy tail. Thought extinct since 1900, this lemur was rediscovered in 1972 by two French ecologists near Kianjavato, Madagascar, and sighted again in 1986.

Guizhou snub-nosed monkey. Rhinopithecus brelichi. Large monkey with a long, black tail tipped with white. First described in 1903 from specimens collected in the Fanjing Shan Range, Guizhou Province, China. Formerly considered a subspecies of the Golden snub-nosed monkey (R. roxellana).

Ha Tinh langur. Trachypithecus fran^oisi hatin-hensis. A black monkey with bands of white hair running from both corners of its mouth to the back of its head. First discovered in 1970 in Phong Nha Nature Reserve, Vietnam. There are only thirty to forty left in the Khe Net Nature Preserve.

Hairy-eared dwarf lemur. Allocebus trichotis. Grayish-brown lemur, with a reddish-brown tail. One of the rarest lemurs, found in 1874 and thought extinct until rediscovered in 1966. Two additional live animals were found south of the Mananara River in 1989. Confined to the area of Mananara National Park, Madagascar.

Ka'apor capuchin. Cebus olivaceus kaapori. Grayish-brown monkey with silver-gray shoulders, discovered in Amazonas State, Brazil, by Heldor Queiroz and first described in 1992. At first, it was designated as a full species, but it's now considered a subspecies of the Weeping capuchin (C. olivaceus). Named after the Urubu-Ka'apor Indians of Maranhao State, where it is also found.

Kloss's gibbon. Hylobates klossii. Small gibbon first described in 1903 by Gerrit S. Miller from a specimen found on the island of Pagai Selatan, Indonesia. Still found on all the islands of the Mentawai group. Weighs about 13 pounds.

Manicore marmoset. Callithrix manicorensis. Squirrel-sized, silvery-white monkey with an orange-yellow belly and black tail, discovered by Marc Van Roosmalen in 1996 along the Rio Manicore, Brazil, and described in 2000.

Martin's false potto. Pseudopotto martini. Discovered in 1996 by Jeffrey H. Schwartz, who was looking at Potto (Perodicticus potto) specimens at the University of Zurich. Not seen in the wild; the specimens had come from Cameroon originally.

Matundu dwarf galago. Galagoides udzung-wensis. Discovered in Tanzania and first described by P. Honess in 1996.

Miss Waldron's red colobus monkey. Pro-colobus badius waldroni. Discovered by Willoughby Lowe in western Ghana in 1933 and officially declared extinct in 2000.

Mountain gorilla. Gorilla gorilla beringei. The largest known living nonhuman primate, first retrieved by Oscar von Beringe in 1902 from the Virunga Volcanos region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The average adult male stands 5 feet 6 inches tall, though an outside height of 6 feet 4 inches has been verified. The hair is darker and longer than that of the Lowland gorilla, and it has larger jaws and teeth. Only about 630 individuals currently remain in Virunga National Park.

Mouse lemurs. Three new species from Mada-gascar—Berthe's mouse lemur (Microcebus berthae), Sambirano mouse lemur (M. sambiranen-sis), and Northern rufous mouse lemur (M. tavara-tra)—were described in December 2000 by Steve Goodman and Rodin Rasoloarison.

Northern talapoin. Miopithecus ogouensis. Small, yellowish monkey with a flesh-colored face and yellow-olive crown found in 1969 and described in 1997. It lives in Gabon in the Ogooue River drainage.

Pygmy mouse lemur. Microcebus myoxinus. The smallest primate in the world, this lemur weighs only 1 ounce when fully grown. First collected in 1852, it became taxonomically confused with other mouse lemurs until 1994, when its species status was rehabilitated by Jutta Schmid and Peter Kappeler. It lives in the Kirindy Forest of western Madagascar.

Pygmy slow loris. Nycticebus pygmaeus. Little-known, reddish-brown primate from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, first described by J. Lewis Bonhote in 1907. Nearly killed off during the Vietnam War, it has since been rehabilitated.

Pygmy tarsier. Tarsius pumilus. Small tarsier (less than 12 inches long) first collected in 1918 in central Sulawesi, Indonesia, but not generally accepted until 1987.

Rio Acari marmoset. Callithrix acariensis. Squirrel-sized, white monkey discovered by Marc Van Roosmalen in 1996 along the Rio Acari, Brazil, and described in 2000.

Rio Maues marmoset. Callithrix mauesi.

Brazilian monkey with brown-and-white, zebralike stripes, first described in 1992 by Russell Mittermeier. Known only from the remote Rio Maues—A^u area of Amazonas State.

Rondo dwarf galago. Galagoides rondoensis. Brown galago with a long, reddish-brown tail, described in 1996 by P. Honess. Found on the Rondo Plateau in Tanzania.

Sanje mangabey. Cercocebus galeritus sanjei. Discovered in 1981 in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania.

Satere marmoset. Callithrix saterei. Squirrel-sized Brazilian monkey with mahogany-orange fur, described by Jose de Sousa e Silva Jr. and Mauricio de Almeida Noronha in 1998.

Sclater's guenon. Cercopithecus sclateri. First described from a zoo specimen in 1904, this small monkey is one of the rarest primates in mainland Africa. It was thought extinct, but primatologists located a wild population on the eastern flood-plain of the River Niger, Nigeria, in 1988, and others have been found since then. Confirmed as a separate species in 1993.

Stephen Nash's titi. Callicebus stephennashi. A cat-sized monkey with a black forehead discovered in 2001 by Marc Van Roosmalen near the Rio Purus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

Sun-tailed guenon. Cercopithecus solatus. Gabon monkey with an orange tail, first described in 1988 by Mike Harrison. Confirmed as a separate species in 1993.

Tonkin snub-nosed monkey. Rhinopithecus avunculus. Small, dark-brown and beige monkey with white eye rings. First collected in 1910, it was thought extinct until rediscovered in Vietnam in 1989.

Unicolor woolly lemur. Avahi unicolor. Found in the Sambirano region of Madagascar and first described in 2000 by U. Thalmann and T. Geissmann.

White-headed langur. Trachypithecus fran^oisi leucocephalus. First described by T'an Pang-Chien in 1957 from specimens taken near Xinning, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Province, China, as Presbytis leucocephalus. Its classification was revised in 1980 as a subspecies of Francois's langur.

Yellow-tailed woolly monkey. Lagothrix flavi-cauda. Mahogany-red monkey with a yellow stripe on the tail. Although the type specimen of this monkey had been obtained in 1802 by Alexander von Humboldt, scientists did not see a living animal until 1974 when several populations were found in Amazonas, Loreto, and San Martín Departments in northern Peru.

Zaire diana monkey. Cercopithecus salongo. Known only from an incomplete skin found in 1977 in the east-central part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Shown in 1991 to be an age variant of the Dryas monkey (C. dryas).

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