Passerine Birds

African green broadbill. Pseudocalyptomena graueri. Primarily green with dark streaks on the forehead and a white chin and throat. Discovered in 1908 in the Itombwe Mountains in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and later reported in western Uganda.

Aldabran brush warbler. Nesillas aldabranus.

This 5-inch songbird has one of the smallest ranges of any known bird species—about 24 acres on the atoll of Aldabra in the Seychelles. Only five birds have been seen since the species was discovered in 1968. A 1986 search failed to find any of these warblers.

Ancient antwren. Herpsilochmus gentryi. Black and white above, yellow below. Discovered through its calls, it lives in tropical lowland forest in the Loreto Department of Peru and in Ecuador. First described in 1998.

Azure-rumped tanager. Tangara cabanisi. First described in 1868 from a skin found near Quet-zaltenango, Guatemala; not seen again until rediscovered in Chiapas State, Mexico, in 1937.

Bali mynah. Leucospar rothschildi. White, crested starling with black wing tips, discovered near Bubunan, Bali, Indonesia, in 1911 by Erwin Stresse-man. As of 1998, only about fourteen individuals were left in the wild in Bali Barat National Park.

Cerulean paradise flycatcher. Eutrichomyias rowleyi. Small, blue-and-white bird rediscovered in 1995 on the island of Sangihe, Indonesia, after last being seen in 1874. The population of this bird was estimated at around 100 in 1999.

Chestnut-capped piha. Lipaugus weberi. Cotinga found in a narrow band of sub-Andean forest on the northern slope of the Central Cordillera of Antioquia Department, Colombia. First described in July 2001.

Cryptic warbler. Cryptosylvicola randrianasoloi. Olive-yellow warbler discovered in Madagascar in 1992 by Bret Whitney and Jan Piersen.

Eyrean grasswren. Amytornis goyderi. This wren's streaked upper parts camouflage it perfectly in its desert habitat. Discovered in 1875, not seen again until 1931, and rediscovered in 1961 near Lake Eyre North, in South Australia, and in 1976 in the Simpson Desert, where it is locally common in cane-grass areas.

Fakfak paradigalla. Paradigalla sp. nov. A black bird of paradise sighted by David Gibbs in 1992 in the Fakfak Mountains, Irian Jaya, Indonesia.

Fire-maned bowerbird. Sericulus bakeri. Reported in the Adelbert Range of Papua New Guinea in 1928 and not seen again until 1956.

Foothill elaenia. Myiopagis olallai. First observed in southeastern Ecuador in June 1992, this flycatcher was formally described by Paul Coop-mans and Niels Krabbe in 2000.

Golden-fronted bowerbird. Amblyornis flav-ifrons. Described in 1895 from specimens on sale in European feather markets, this bird wasn't seen in its native Foja Mountains in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, until 1981, when it was spotted by Jared Diamond.

Grey grasswren. Amytornis barbatus. First reported in 1921 but not described until 1968 from specimens collected on swampy, cane-grass plains in southwestern Queensland, Australia.

Gurney's pitta. Pitta gurneyi. The male has a bright blue cap, jet-black face, yellow throat, and striped chest. Living in the underbrush of thick, lowland rain forest, its presence can often only be confirmed by its distinctive voice characteristics. Gurney's pitta has been ranked among the world's twelve most endangered species. It is 8 inches long, endemic to a small area extending from southern Myanmar to peninsular Thailand and south to the Malaysian border. It was declared extinct in 1985 due to a lack of reports after 1952, but it was photographed just one year later in Thailand. The only possibly viable population is at Khao Nor Chuchi in Krabi Province, Thailand, in the region's last remaining lowland rain forest, which contained only ten of these birds in 2000.

Hainan leaf warbler. Phylloscopus hainanus. A bright-yellow warbler first described in 1993 and endemic to Hainan Island in the South China Sea.

Jocotoco antpitta. Grallaria ridgelyi. The second largest antpitta, this species has a black crown and a white eye stripe. It was discovered by Robert Ridgely in the Cerro Tapichalaca of Zamora-Chinchipe Province, southern Ecuador, in November 1997.

Kabylie nuthatch. Sitta ledanti. Blue-gray above, russet below, with a black crown and eye stripe, this nuthatch is the only bird species endemic to Algeria. Discovered in 1975 in the Massif des Babors, Algeria.

Lina's sunbird. Aethopyga linaraborae. Brightly colored bird first collected in 1965 by Dioscoro Rabor in remote mountains on Mindanao in the Philippines but misidentified as the Apo sunbird (A. boltoni, itself only discovered in 1903). Formally described by Robert S. Kennedy in 1997.

Marsh antwren. Stymphalornis acutirostris. Identified in 1995 on the coast of Paraná State, Brazil, by Marcos Bornschein and Bianca Reinert.

Noisy scrub-bird. Atrichornis clamosus. Semi-

flightless, brown bird, 8 inches long, with relatively long legs and tail, that lives in eucalyptus scrub. Rediscovered in 1961 on Mount Gardner, east of Albany, Western Australia, after last being reported in 1889.

Pardusco. Nephelornis oneilli. Tanager-like bird discovered in 1973 in the Carpiza Mountains, Peru. Unlike similar species, the Pardusco has two unusual muscles that make it difficult to classify.

Pink-legged graveteiro. Acrobatornis fonsecai. Small, black-and-gray ovenbird observed for the first time in November 1994 by Paulo Sergio Fon-seca in southeastern Bahia State, Brazil. It inhabits shade trees overhanging cocoa plantations.

Po'o-uli. Melamprosops phaeosoma. Hawaiian honeycreeper, slightly over 5 inches long, dark brown to cinnamon on the back, with a black mask and pale-buff neck. First seen in Haleakala National Park on east Maui by university students in July 1973. Only three to six individuals remained in 2000.

Red Sea cliff swallow. Hirundo perdita. Described in 1985 from one specimen found off Port Sudan, Sudan.

Rock firefinch. Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis. This finch has a blue-gray bill and a red back in the male and reddish-brown back in the female. It was first described in 1998 from a specimen located by Robert Payne on the Jos Plateau in northern Nigeria.

Rufous-headed robin. Luscinia ruficeps. Discovered in the Qin Ling Mountains of Shaanxi Province, China, in 1905 but not seen again until 1963, when a specimen turned up on Mount Berincang in the Cameron Highlands of Malaysia. Recorded recently at Jiuzhaiguo, northern Sichuan Province, China.

Sangha forest robin. Stiphornis sanghensis. Dark-gray back with a bright yellow-red throat and a yellow belly. Recognized as a distinct species by Pamela Beresford and Joel Cracraft in 1996 after they examined more than 100 forest robins in museum collections and conducted a confirmatory DNA analysis. Found in the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve in the Central African Republic.

Sao Tomé grosbeak. Neospiza concolor. Large-headed finch endemic to the island of Sao Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea, first described in 1888. Not seen alive since 1890 except for two observations in August 1991 near the Rio Xufexufe.

Sillem's mountain finch. Leucosticte sillemi.

The only two known specimens were collected in 1929 by J. A. Sillem in western Tibet. Described as a new species in 1992 from skins found at the Zoological Museum at Amsterdam.

Stresemann's bush crow. Zavattariornis strese-manni. Discovered in 1938 in a limited area around Yabelo, Ethiopia. Classed with the crows but looks somewhat like a starling and has a starlinglike nest. Has a hooked bill and bristles over the nostrils.

Taiwan bush-warbler. Bradypterus alishanensis. First collected in the Ali-Shan Mountains of Taiwan in 1917 as a subspecies of the Russet bush-warbler (B. mandelli). Recognized as a separate species in 2000, when its song was discovered to be distinct from that of other populations.

Reptiles and Amphibians Archey's frog. Leiopelma archeyi. Tiny frog so well adapted to a terrestrial existence that it lacks webbing between its toes. Described in 1942, though reported since the nineteenth century. Endemic to the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand.

Arnold's giant tortoise. Dipsochelys arnoldi. Described in 1982 by Roger Bour from three misidentified museum specimens. This tortoise was presumed extinct in its native Seychelles Islands by 1840, but captive animals with shapes different from the Aldabran species (D. dussum-ieri) turned up in 1997 and apparently represent survivals of the original giant saddle-backed tortoises. A total of eighteen are now known.

Black toad. Bufo exsul. Small, dark toad with white spots and tracings, discovered by Carl L. Hubbs in 1934 but not described until 1942. Occurs only in water flowing from springs in the Deep Springs Valley in Inyo County, California. Considered by some to be a subspecies of the Western toad (B. boreas).

Bolsón tortoise. Gopherus flavomarginatus. Documented in 1888 but recognized as a distinct species only in 1959, this is the largest land reptile in North America. Its carapace may reach 18 inches in length. Its range is restricted to the Bolsón de Mapimí Desert, Coahuila State, Mexico, though it is known from fossil finds as far north as Oklahoma.

Catahoula salamander. Plethodon ainsworthi. Two specimens were discovered in 1964 near Bay Springs, Mississippi, and misidentified as a similar Plethodon species. James Lazell described them as belonging to a distinct species in 1998, but no further individuals have been collected.

Cerrophidion petlalcalensis. A small pit viper found in the Cerro Petlalcala south of Orizaba, Veracruz State, Mexico, and first described in 1999. One of its discoverers, Marco Antonio Lopez-Luna, was bitten in the hand by this viper.

Cochin Forest cane turtle. Heosemys silvatica. Known only from one or two specimens obtained in 1911 from the Cochin State Forests, Kerala State, India, until it was rediscovered in the Cha-lakudi Valley in 1982.

Colombian giant toad. Bufo blombergi. One of the world's largest toads, 8—9 inches long, this species was first described in 1951 from a specimen taken in Narino Department, Colombia. Found from northern Ecuador to western Colombia.

Crocodile lizard. Shinisaurus crocodilurus. Dark gray-and-red lizard, 8-12 inches long, found in the Dayao Shan Mountain range, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Province, China. Discovered in 1928, though long known to the Chinese as the "lizard of great sleepiness."

Delcourt's giant gecko. Hoplodactylus del-courti. The only known specimen of this short-headed, bulky gecko, measuring 2 feet long, was obtained sometime in the nineteenth century by the Marseille Natural History Museum. The her-petology curator, Alain Delcourt, inspected the specimen more closely in 1979, which led to its recognition as a new species in 1986 and its description by Aaron Bauer and Anthony P. Russell. Its provenance is unknown, though since other Hoplodactylus geckos live primarily in New Zealand, it's likely to have come from there. Maori legends of the Kawekaweau may refer to encounters with this gecko.

Earless monitor. Lanthanotus borneensis. A nocturnal lizard of Sarawak State on the island of Borneo in Indonesia that grows to 18 inches, lacks external ear openings, and has transparent lower eyelids and a relatively long tail. Said to be the world's rarest lizard, it may have evolved from a lizard group ancestral to the snakes. First described in 1878, it was placed in a family of its own (Lan-thanotidae) in 1954. In 1961, a live specimen was finally captured and examined.

Eleutherodactylus iberia. North America s smallest frog. Black with orange stripes and only 0.4 inches long, it was discovered in 1996 on Monte Iberia, Cuba, by Alberto Estrada.

Fijian crested iguana. Brachylophus vitiensis. The first reptile species to be bred in captivity before receiving a scientific name. Discovered on the island of Yadua Taba in Fiji in 1979 by John Gibbons, this iguana has a pale green body with white stripes and a crest of spines along its back. In 1980, the island was designated as the first Fijian wildlife reserve in order to preserve the iguana.

Fitzroy River tortoise. Rheodytes leukops. Discovered in 1973, this turtle is able to remain under water for long periods because it can respirate through a network of blood vessels in its cloaca. It can stay submerged for as long as three days to avoid predatory crocodiles. Found only in the Fitzroy River, Queensland, Australia.

Gastric brooding frog. Rheobatrachus silus. The first completely aquatic frog discovered in Australia, it was also the first species known to incubate its eggs in the female's stomach. A specimen was obtained by the Queensland Museum in 1915, but it was not recognized as distinct. Considered locally abundant when it was rediscovered in the Blackall and Conondale Ranges of southeastern Queensland in 1973, it vanished within a few years and may now be extinct. The last wild frog was seen in 1980, and the last captive specimen died in 1983. However, another species (R. vitellinus) was discovered farther north near Eun-gella in 1983, though no wild specimens have been found since 1985.

Georgia blind salamander. Haideotriton walla-cei. A 3-inch-long, blind, pinkish-white, semitransparent aquatic cave and well dweller discovered in an artesian well in Albany, Georgia, in 1939.

Golden lancehead. Bothrops insularis. Extremely venomous pit viper first described in 1921 and found only on the Ilha de Queimada Grande off the coast of Itanhaem, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Its numbers declined drastically in the late 1960s, but it is once again abundant today.

Golden poison frog. Phyllobates terribilis. The most toxic frog known to date, its batrachotoxin secretions are used by the Embre and Choco Indians of western Colombia for poison darts. One adult frog has enough poison in its skin to kill 100 humans. Its color is a solid metallic gold. Described in 1978.

Goliath frog. Conraua goliath. The world's longest frog, 10—14 inches long, was described in 1906 by George Boulenger after its discovery at Evouma, Cameroon.

Gulf snapping turtle. Elseya lavarackorum. Discovered in Lawn Hill Creek, Queensland, Australia, in 1995, this large, black turtle had been thought extinct for 50,000 years. It subsists on wild figs and has developed a taste for bananas since its discovery.

Hierro giant lizard. Gallotia simonyi. This dark-colored, 2-foot lizard was rediscovered in 1975 in an area called Fuga de Gorreta on El Hierro in the Canary Islands, after being thought extinct since 1935. The island government has carried out a preservation plan since 1997 to ensure its survival. On the neighboring island of La Gomera, six living specimens of a similar, 18-inch-long reptile were discovered in March 2000 on the cliffs of Valle Gran Rey. It has been classed as G. gomerana, although the taxonomy of these lizards is still unsettled.

Hussain's night frog. Nyctibatrachus hussaini. A large species of black night frog with yellow spots was discovered in the Kudremukh National Park, Karnataka State, India, in 2000. It was named after Indian ecologist S. A. Hussain.

Israel painted frog. Discoglossus nigriventer. Discovered in 1940 in the Hula Basin, Israel, and now considered extinct due to swamp drainage and agricultural development. Colored ocher, rust, gray, and black on its back. Only five specimens are known, the last obtained in 1955.

Jaragua sphaero gecko. Sphaerodactylus ari-asae. A contender for the world's smallest reptile, this tiny (0.63-inch) gecko was discovered on Isla Beata, Dominican Republic, in 2001 by S. Blair Hedges and Richard Thomas. Its size is comparable to S. parthenopion, found only on Virgin Gorda in the British Virgin Islands; discovered in 1965 by Thomas, the largest mature female measured 0.71 inch from snout to vent.

Jimi River frog. Rana jimiensis. Discovered in 1960 and found in the upper reaches of the Jimi, Ramu, and Sepik Rivers, this frog is the second largest in Papua New Guinea, just under 6.5 inches long.

Komodo dragon. Varanus komodoensis. The world's largest living lizard was first described in 1912 by Peter A. Ouwens from a specimen killed by J. K. H. van Steyn van Hensbroek on Komodo Island in Indonesia. This lizard's tail is less than half of its total length, making it stockier than other monitors of similar size. The largest verified Komodo dragon reached a length of 10 feet 6

Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), the world's largest living lizard, first described in 1912. (© 2002 ArtToday.com, Inc., an IMSI Company)

inches and was purported to weigh 366 pounds. In 1926, American hunter and wildlife collector W. Douglas Burden organized an expedition to the island, sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History; he was accompanied by big-game hunter F. J. Defosse and Smith College herpetolo-gist Emmett Reid Dunn. Burden took two live Komodo dragons to the Bronx Zoo (the first in captivity anywhere). Burden told the story of his trip to movie producer Merian C. Cooper, who changed the objective from a giant lizard to a giant ape and added heroine Fay Wray to produce the classic movie King Kong in 1933. Dick Lutz and J. Marie Lutz, Komodo: The Living Dragon (Salem, Oreg.: Dimi Press, 1997).

Lake Cronin snake. Echiopsis atriceps. Venomous elapid snake discovered in 1979 near Lake Cronin, Western Australia, by G. M. Storr.

Lungless caecilian. Atretochoana eiselti. A lung-less, legless South American caecilian first described in 1995 by Ronald Nussbaum and Mark Wilkinson from a Viennese museum specimen.

Mallorcan midwife toad. Alytes muletensis. Europe's rarest amphibian, this toad was first described in fossilized form as a new genus (Baleaphryne) by Spanish researchers in 1977. In 1979, living tadpoles and young frogs were discovered in the Sierra de Tramuntana on the island of Mallorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. A small toad with a relatively large head and rounded snout, it is confined to a limited area of limestone gorges.

Mary River tortoise. Elusor macrurus. Flat-tailed, freshwater Australian turtle first described in 1994 from a specimen found near Gympie, Queensland, though its hatchlings had been sold in Melbourne pet shops since the 1960s. A fully grown specimen was not seen in the wild until

1987.

New Guinea crocodile. Crocodylus no-vaeguineae. Freshwater crocodile, 10—13 feet long with a narrow snout, first described in 1929 by Karl Schmidt from a skull obtained on the lower Sepik River, Papua New Guinea, in 1908.

Oaxacan caecilian. Dermophis oaxacae. Discovered in Oaxaca State, Mexico, by K. Lafrentz in 1928 and known from only about thirty specimens. It apparently has not been collected anywhere in Mexico since 1972.

One-toed amphiuma. Amphiuma pholeter. Rare, gray-to-brown dwarf salamander, 8—12 inches long, discovered in 1950 and found only in southwestern Georgia and the panhandle and Gulf Hammock region of Florida.

Panamanian golden frog. Atelopus zeteki. Bright yellow frog with black blotches discovered in El Valle de Anton, Cocle Province, Panama, by James Zetek in 1929. Finally classed as a separate species in 1993. Not only do these frogs signal vocally, they also communicate by semaphores, a little-known hand-waving phenomenon. Their skin is highly toxic.

Phantom frog. Eleutherodactylus phasma. Rain frog discovered in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica, in 1996.

Philippine crocodile. Crocodylus mindorensis. Distinct freshwater species, 9—10 feet long with a broad snout and heavy dorsal armor, first described by Karl Schmidt in 1935.

Pilos chameleon. Chamaeleo africanus. An introduced population of African chameleon was recognized as living around the Pilos Lagoon, Messinia, Greece, in the 1990s, confirmed in 1999 by DNA analysis. Previously, the species was known only in Africa, from Nigeria to Egypt.

Ramsey Canyon leopard frog. Rana subaquavo-calis. Rare, 8-inch frog discovered in 1990 by James E. Platz in southeastern Arizona. It is the only frog known that vocalizes exclusively under water. Its range is restricted to small ponds located in the Huachuca Mountains near Sierra Vista, Arizona.

Tricolored monitor. Varanus yuwonoi. Dark, slender, aggressive monitor lizard, 4—5 feet long, of Halmahera, Indonesia, discovered by animal dealer Frank Yuwono. First described in 1998.

Turquoise monitor. Varanus caerulivirens. Monitor lizard of Halmahera, Indonesia, with a light-blue or turquoise tinge, described by Wolfgang Böhme and Thomas Ziegler in 1999.

Vietnamese sharp-nosed snake. Cryptophidion annamense. Photographed west of Da Nang in 1968 during the Vietnam War, this small, burrowing snake with a pointed nose was described in 1992 by Van Wallach and Gwilym S. Jones. However, in 1996, it was shown to be the well-known Sunbeam snake (Xenopeltis unicolor) by Olivier Pauwels and Danny Mierte.

Yellow-headed temple turtle. Hieremys annan-dalii. A freshwater species that can reach 2 feet long, this turtle was first described in 1903, even though it had been well known as a sacred turtle to Thai priests.

Yellow monitor. Varanus melinus. A 3-foot-long monitor lizard found on Obi and Sula Islands of eastern Indonesia. Described by Wolfgang Böhme and Thomas Ziegler in 1997.

Yemen monitor. Varanus yemenensis. A 3.5-foot-long monitor lizard found in southern Arabia. Discovered in 1985 when German filmmaker Wieland Lippoldmüller unwittingly filmed one climbing a tree in the Tihamah area of Yemen.

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