Nonpasserine Birds

Amazonian parrotlet. Nannopsittaca dachilleae. Seen for the first time in 1985 by Charles Munn in Manu National Park, Peru, and described in 1991. Don Stap, A Parrot without a Name: The Search for the Last Unknown Birds on Earth (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990).

.Amsterdam albatross. Diomedea amsterdamen-sis. Predominantly brown plumage; wingspan more than 3 feet. Discovered by French scientists in 1978 on Île Amsterdam in the South Indian Ocean, its sole breeding locale, and described in

1983.

Amsterdam Island widgeon. Anas marecula. Small, flightless duck formerly found on Île Amsterdam in the South Indian Ocean and presumably killed off by whalers. Possibly noted by Sir John Barrow on nearby Île St.-Paul in 1793. First described in 1996 from subfossil bones but now extinct.

Anjouan scops owl. Otus capnodes. Small, earless owl rediscovered on Anjouan in the Comoro Islands in 1992 after being thought extinct since 1886.

Atitlan grebe. Podilymbus gigas. Giant form of the Pied-billed grebe (P. podiceps) discovered in Lake Atitlan, Guatemala, in 1862 but not described until 1929 by Ludlow Griscom. Last recorded in 1984, it has been presumed extinct since 1990.

Bahian nighthawk. Nyctiprogne vielliardi. First described in 1994 after its discovery near the Rio Sao Francisco, Bahia State, Brazil.

Bermuda petrel. Pterodroma cahow. Dark petrel with a white rump. Thought extinct in 1621 after rats were introduced on the island, but a specimen of this rare seabird was collected in 1906. Eighteen nesting pairs were discovered after its breeding locality was identified in 1951 on Nonsuch Island; since then, it has been protected. By 1999, it had reached a population of fifty-six nesting pairs. Also known in Bermuda as the cahow, after its strange nocturnal call. Recorded occasionally off North Carolina.

Campbell Island snipe. Coenocorypha auck-landica sp. nov. In November 1997, Jeremy Carrol discovered this new snipe subspecies on Jacquemart Island, an islet off Campbell Island in the Pacific south of New Zealand, making this the first new bird found in New Zealand since 1930.

Chinese crested tern. Sterna bernsteini. Six pairs of this rare seabird turned up in June 2000

on the island of Ma-tsu Lieh, north of Taiwan. Prior to that, the birds were last seen in 1937 when sixteen individuals were collected off the coast of Shandong Province, China.

Cinnabar hawk-owl. Ninox ios. First obtained in 1985 by Frank Rozendaal in the Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, north Sulawesi, Indonesia. Described in 1999 by Pamela Rasmussen.

Cloud-forest pygmy owl. Glaucidium nubi-cola. Small owl that lives in the Andes Mountains of Ecuador and Colombia. Discovered by Mark Robbins in 1999 through museum specimens and recorded calls.

Colombian grebe. Podiceps andinus. First described in 1959 and last seen February 13-15, 1977, at Laguna de Tota, Colombia.

Congo bay owl. Phodilus prigoginei. One of Africa's least-known birds. Rufous color, with brown spots. Described from one female specimen taken in 1951 in the Albertine Rift Mountains, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Another female was captured in 1996 west of Lake Tanganyika.

Congo peacock. Afropavo congensis. Males are mostly dark metallic blue all over, with reddish-brown on the throat and an upright white crest. First known from feathers in native headdresses, obtained in 1913 by James Chapin in Avakubi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 1936, Chapin located a stuffed specimen of the bird in a museum in Belgium and was able to identify it as the only large member of the pheasant family in Africa.

Cox's sandpiper. Calidris paramelanotos. Described by Shane Parker in 1982 from two specimens collected in South Australia during the 1970s. However, DNA analysis in 1996 confirmed that the bird was a Curlew sandpiper (C. ferrug-ined) x Pectoral sandpiper (C. melanotos) hybrid.

Edwards pheasant. Lophura edwardsi. Male birds are metallic blue with white crests and red facial wattles, red feet, and short tails. Discovered in Vietnam in 1923 by Jean Delacour. Thought extinct since 1928 but rediscovered in 1996 near Bach Ma National Park, southeast of Hué, Vietnam.

El Oro parakeet. Pyrrhura orcesi. Green parakeet with red and blue wing patches, red crown, and maroon tail, discovered in 1985 in Ecuador.

Fearful owl. Nesasio solomonensis. Described in 1901 by Ernst Hartert, this owl was discovered on the island of Santa Isabel, Solomon Islands, by Al bert S. Meek. A rare species, it is also found on Bougainville Island.

Fiji petrel. Pterodroma macgillivrayi. Known only from a single specimen collected in Ngau, Fiji, in 1855 until 1984, when the bird, dazzled by searchlights, crash-landed on the head of Dick Watling, the naturalist searching for it.

Fijian barred-wing rail. Nesoclopeus poe-ciloptera. Thought to be extinct since 1890, a specimen was found on Viti Levu's Nandrau Plateau in 1973.

Forest owlet. Athene blewitti. This 9-inch-long owl was last seen in 1884 and known only from a total of seven specimens collected in India until it was rediscovered in November 1997 by Pamela Rasmussen, who photographed two owlets near Shahada, Maharashtra State, India.

Gunnison sage grouse. Centrocercus minimus. Genetic studies in 2000 determined that a group of sage grouse in southwestern Colorado actually represented a different species from the more populous Greater sage grouse (C. urophasianus).

Imperial pheasant. Lophura imperialis. Described in 1924 by Jean Delacour and Pierre Jabouille from a pair found a year earlier in the Annam Highlands of Vietnam. The pair was bred successfully in Europe. A third specimen was taken in 1990 at the Ke Go Nature Reserve in Ha Tinh Province, and a fourth was obtained in 2000 at the proposed Dakrong Nature Reserve in Quang Tri Province. Plumage comparisons by Pamela Ras-mussen in 1998 and more recent DNA research strongly suggest that this pheasant is a naturally occurring hybrid between the Silver pheasant (L. nyc-themara) and the Edwards pheasant (L. edwardsi).

Inaccessible Island rail. Atlantisia rogersi. The smallest flightless rail in the world (5 inches long), found only on an islet of the remote Tristan da Cunha group in the South Atlantic Ocean. Discovered and described in 1923.

Jerdon's courser. Cursorius bitorquatus. A ploverlike bird with two white bands on its chest, this animal was first recorded in 1848 by Thomas C. Jerdon and seemed to be extinct after 1900. It was rediscovered in 1986 in the Cuddappah District, Andhra Pradesh State, India, by Salim Ali.

Korean crested shelduck. Tadorna cristata. Distinctive head, green on top and gray below in the male and black on top and whitish below in the female. Green lower neck and upper chest, with the rest dark gray. First recorded in 1877 near

Vladivostok, Siberia, but not accepted as a distinct species until 1917 after a female was taken near Pusan, South Korea. Now critically endangered and possibly extinct. Recently reported in a variety of inland wetlands in China. Elsewhere, the most recent unconfirmed sightings were on an island southwest of Vladivostok, in 1964; on the northeast coast of North Korea, in March 1971; and in eastern Russia, in March 1985.

Lear's macaw. Anodorhynchus leari. Named in 1856 after nonsense poet and painter Edward Lear, who painted a captive specimen of this macaw in 1831. This blue parrot's country of origin remained unknown until 1978, when Helmut Sick, who had been searching for the bird for twenty-four years, saw a flock of twenty in the Raso da Catarina Ecological Reserve, Bahia State, Brazil.

Long-whiskered owlet. Xenoglaux loweryi. Tiny owl discovered by John P. O'Neill and Gary P. Graves in Abra Patricia, San Martin Department, Peru, in 1976.

Madagascar serpent-eagle. Eutriorchis astur. A large (about 26-inch-long) brown raptor with striped underparts and black bill. Until recently, known only from ten specimens collected between its discovery in 1874 and 1930. A live specimen was first sighted in 1988 along Madagascar's northeastern coast, and another dead specimen was obtained in 1990. Since 1993, at least fifteen have been seen on Masoala Peninsula.

Mascarene shearwater. Puffinus atrodorsalis. A black-backed seabird of the western Indian Ocean first described in 1995. However, more recent DNA analysis indicates it may only be an immature Audubon's shearwater (P. ilherminieri).

Mikado pheasant. Syrmaticus mikado. Purplish-black pheasant with bright red face patch and white bars on the rump and tail. Described in 1906 by W. R. Ogilvie-Grant from specimens obtained in the central mountains of Taiwan.

Mountain peacock-pheasant. Polyplectron in-opinatum. Reddish-brown pheasant described in 1903 by Lord Walter Rothschild from specimens in peninsular Malaysia.

Nechisar nightjar. Caprimulgus solala. A whip-poor-will—like bird that was discovered by Roger Safford in 1990 as roadkill in the Nechisar National Park in Ethiopia. Only a single wing was salvageable.

Nepal wren-babbler. Pnoepyga immaculata.

Nearly tailless, 4-inch-long, wrenlike bird first found in the Himalaya Mountains of Nepal in 1991.

Okinawa rail. Gallirallus okinawae. Colorful rail with red bill and red legs, discovered in the dense evergreen forest on northern Okinawa, Japan, in 1981.

Puerto Rican nightjar. Caprimulgus noc-titherus. A robin-sized, nocturnal bird with long bristles around the mouth and a white band around the throat, described in 1919. Rediscovered in 1961 after a fifty-year disappearance. Currently found only in the dry, limestone forests of southwestern Puerto Rico. Sometimes listed as a subspecies of the Whip-poor-will (C. vociferus).

Relict gull. Larus relictus. Breeds on remote lakes in Mongolia and central China; visits coastal areas of China during early spring and late fall. At first thought to be a subspecies or hybrid, this gull was rediscovered in the Buryat Republic, Siberia, in 1967. Classed as a distinct species since 1931.

Sangihe scops owl. Otus collari. Four specimens of this owl were collected between 1866 and 1887 on the island of Sangihe, north of Sulawesi in Indonesia. After it was rediscovered in May 1985 by Frank Rozendaal, it was recognized as a distinct species and described by Pamela Ras-mussen in 1998. It is still relatively common in the forested parts of the island.

Scarlet-banded barbet. Capito wallacei. The only member of its genus restricted to montane cloud forest, this colorful bird was first collected in the Andean cloud forest of eastern Peru in 1996 and described in 2000.

Seychelles scops owl. Otus insularis. One of the world's least-known owls, this species was thought extinct by 1906 but was rediscovered in 1959 on the Seychelles island of Mahe by Phillipe Loustau-Lalanne. The first recorded nest was found in May

1999.

Subtropical pygmy owl. Glaucidium parkeri. Discovered in Ecuador on the east slope of the Andes and first described in 1995.

Takahe. Porphyrio hochstetteri. A large, flightless rail with a stocky body and a massive bill. A living specimen was discovered by seal hunters on Resolution Island, off South Island, New Zealand, in 1849, two years after its fossil bones had been found on North Island by Walter Mantell. Christened Notornis mantelli hochstetteri by anatomist Richard Owen to distinguish it from the North Is land remains. Other Takahes were found on South Island in 1851, 1879, and 1898, but the bird wasn't officially rediscovered until November 20, 1948, when Geoffrey Orbell found breeding pairs at a remote lake in New Zealand that would be named Takahe Lake. An estimated 250 birds were later found in the Murchison Mountains. In 1973, the South Island Takahe was reclassed as a relation of the Purple swamphen (Porphyrio melanotus) and renamed P. hochstetteri. A total of 221 birds were counted in the 1999-2000 season.

Talaud rail. Gymnocrex talaudensis. A rail endemic to Kepualan Talaud, an island north of Halmahera in Indonesia, was first described by Frank Lambert in 1998.

Udzungwa forest partridge. Xenoperdix udzungwensis. Discovered in 1991 by Lars Dine-son in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania and described in 1994.

Vietnamese pheasant. Lophura edwardsi hatin-hensis. Discovered in 1964 in central Vietnam, this bird was officially described as a new species by Vo Quy in 1975. It was not kept in captivity until 1990, when six were taken to the Hanoi Zoo. Now considered a subspecies of the Edwards pheasant (L. edwardsi).

Wake Island rail. Rallus wakensis. Nearly flightless, ground-nesting rail with brown back and barred abdomen. Described in 1903 by Lord Walter Rothschild from specimens obtained by a Japanese vessel on Wake Island in 1892. Last observed in 1940. Probably eaten out of existence by Japanese occupation forces during World War II.

White-winged guan. Penelope albipennis. A pheasantlike bird described in 1878 from a specimen found on the coast of northern Peru. More than 3 feet long and weighing 4.5 pounds. Rediscovered and photographed in the Andean foothills in 1977. The local inhabitants had known the bird well. Now probably restricted to the Lacquipampa area, Lambayeque Department, Peru.

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