Alexandra's cuscus. Phalanger alexandrae. Tailed marsupial with red shoulders, first described by Tim Flannery in 1995. Found on Gebe Island, east of Halmahera in the Molucca Islands, Indonesia.
Anderson's mouse opossum. Marmosa ander-soni. Small opossum first described in 1972 and known only from Cuzco, Peru.
Black-shouldered opossum. Caluromysiops ir-rupta. Rare Peruvian opossum known from fewer than thirty specimens and first described in 1950.
Bronze quoll. Dasyurus spartacus. Dasyure or native cat of Wasur National Park, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. First described in 1988 by Stephen Van Dyck.
Ceram bandicoot. Rhynchomeles prattorum. Foot-long, ratlike marsupial not seen since its discovery in 1920 on Mount Manusela in Ceram, Indonesia.
Cinnamon antechinus. Antechinus leo. Mouselike marsupial with soft, cinnamon-colored fur, discovered in 1979 in the central Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia.
Desert rat kangaroo. Caloprymnus campestris. Small, hopping marsupial with large hind feet and a shoulder height of 14—15 inches. It was rediscovered in 1931 in the Lake Eyre region of South Australia by Hedley Herbert Finlayson, after an absence of sightings since 1843. No conclusive observations have been recorded in the interim, although apparently recent remains have been found in caves in the southeastern part of Western Australia.
Dingiso. Dendrolagus mbaiso. Semiterrestrial tree kangaroo discovered in 1994 by Tim Flannery. It is 3 feet tall, with a distinctive white star in the middle of its forehead. Though arboreal, it lives mostly on the ground and crawls down trees with its hind legs first. Found in the Pegunungan Maoke Mountains, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Tim Flannery, Throwim Way Leg (New York: Grove, 1998).
Gilbert's potoroo. Potorous tridactylus gilberti. Thought extinct by 1870, but a pair of these rat kangaroos were snared at Two Peoples Bay Nature
Reserve, near Albany, Western Australia, in 1994 by Elizabeth Sinclair. Three others were found shortly afterward.
Handley's slender mouse opossum. Mar-mosops handleyi. Small opossum from Colombia described by Ronald H. Pine in 1981.
Julia Creek dunnart. Sminthopsis douglasi. Mouselike marsupial identified in 1931 from museum specimens but not recognized as a species until 1979. Pat Woolley caught the first live animals in 1992 in northern Queensland, Australia.
Leadbeater's possum. Gymnobelideus leadbeat-eri. Small (6—7 inches), nocturnal possum with grayish or brownish fur and a dark stripe down the back. Found in 1867 but thought extinct until its rediscovery in 1961 by Graham Pizzey and H. E. Wilkinson near Marysville, Victoria, Australia.
Long-footed potoroo. Potorous longipes. Rat kangaroo discovered in June 1967 southwest of Bonang, Victoria, Australia. Its diet consists of fungi that grow in tree roots. It was described as a distinct species in 1980.
Long-tailed dunnart. Sminthopsis longicaudata. Marsupial mouse first found in 1908 in Pilbara, Western Australia, and rediscovered in the Gibson Desert Nature Reserve in 1975. Nine additional specimens were captured alive in June 1981. The animal's long tail has a tuft on the end.
Mcilhenny's four-eyed opossum. Philander andersoni mcilhennyi. This opossum with white spots above the eyes was first described in 1972. Found in northern Peru and western Brazil.
Monjon. Petrogale burbidgei. The smallest rock wallaby, discovered in 1963 and described in 1978. Restricted to rugged, inhospitable parts of the Kimberley region, Western Australia.
Mountain pygmy possum. Burramys parvus. Discovered by Robert Broome as a Pleistocene fossil in the Wombeyan Caves, New South Wales, in 1896, this tiny (4-inch-long) possum was found alive at a ski lodge on Mount Hotham, Victoria, Australia, in 1966 by Kenneth Shortman. Other populations have been located in the Bogong High Plains and Kosciusko National Park in New South Wales.
Ningauis. The Pilbara ningaui (Ningaui timealeyi), Wongai ningaui (N. ridei), and Southern ningaui (N. yvonnae). This new genus of mouselike marsupials was discovered in Western Australia in 1975 by Michael Archer.
throated wallaby was declared extinct in Australia in 1932; however, a colony established in 1870 was rediscovered on Kawau Island, New Zealand, in 1965, and natural populations were rediscovered a few years later between the Hunter and Clarence Rivers in New South Wales, Australia.
Proserpine rock wallaby. Petrogale persephone. The largest rock wallaby, discovered in 1976 near Proserpine, Queensland, Australia, and described in 1982.
Purple-necked rock wallaby. Petrogale pur-pureicollis. This rock wallaby with purple coloration on its neck was first mentioned in 1924 by biologist Albert S. Le Souef after he recovered specimens from Mount Isa, Queensland. The animal's color fades after it is killed, making it look like a normal wallaby. In 2001, Macquarie University researchers recognized it as a distinct species, showing that it secreted a purple pigment through its skin.
Pygmy short-tailed opossum. Monodelphis kunsi. A tiny, shrewlike opossum with short legs, first described in 1975. Known only from seven specimens in Bolivia and Brazil.
Sandhill dunnart. Sminthopsis psammophila. Marsupial mouse discovered in 1894 near Lake Amadeus, Northern Territory, and not found again until 1969 on the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. An adult female and five recently weaned and independent juveniles were captured in January 2000. Their habitat was found to be restricted to large hummocks of spinifex on certain types of sand dunes.
Scaly-tailed possum. Wyulda squamicaudata. Lemurlike possum with a scaled, prehensile tail, found only in the Kimberley Plateau of Western Australia. The first specimen was found in 1917; this animal was long thought to be rare but is now known to be locally common in parts of the Kimberley.
Slim-faced slender mouse opossum. Mar-mosops cracens. Small opossum first described by Charles O. Handley Jr. and L. K. Gordon in 1979 and known only from Falcon State, Venezuela.
Southern dibbler. Parantechinus apicalis. Speckled marsupial mouse with a distinctive eye ring that was rediscovered in 1967 on the southern coast of Western Australia after last being sighted in 1887. Now known only from the area around Cheyne Bay, Jerdacuttup, and islands in Jurien Bay, Western Australia.
Tenkile tree kangaroo. Dendrolagus scottae. This 6-foot-long tree kangaroo was discovered by Tim Flannery in 1989 on the southern face of Mount Sumoro, Papua New Guinea.
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