Small Hominid of ancient India or Africa.

286 kung-lu

Etymology: Greek, "dog-headed." Variant names: Calinges, Calystrian, Choro-manda, Cynocephalos, Dog-man, Kalystriai, Sunamukha.

Physical description: Height, 2-3 feet. Head is like a dog's. Snub-nosed. Big teeth. Long beard. Claws or long fingernails. Both men and women are said to have tails.

Behavior: Barking language. Eats raw meat. Drinks sheep's milk. Lives in caves in the mountains. Said to live to be 170-200 years old. Tends sheep and oxen. Uses bow and arrows and spears skillfully. Hunts hares with ravens, kites, crows, and vultures. Wears animal skins. Sails in boats on an oily lake.

Distribution: South and central India west to the Indus River; North Africa. (The names India and Ethiopia were widely used synonymously by ancient and medieval writers.) Possible explanations:

(1) Various "hill tribes" of southern India, possibly the Kadar, Irular, Panniyan, or Kurumba peoples.

(2) The Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) has a doglike face and is found in Arabia, Ethiopia, and Sudan.

(3) The Hoolock gibbon (Hylobates hoolock) is the only ape found in India, standing nearly 3 feet when upright.

(4) A derogatory name for any disliked group of people.

Sources: Herodotus, The Histories, trans. Aubrey de Selincourt (London: Penguin, 1996), p. 276 (iv 191); Ctesias, Indika, in J. W. McCrindle, ed., Ancient India (Calcutta, India: Thacker, Spink, 1882), pp. 15-16, 21-25, 52-53, 63, 84-90; Pliny the Elder, Historia naturalis, in John F. Healy, ed., Natural History: A Selection (New York: Penguin Classics, 1991), pp. 78-79 (vii. 21-27); ^lian, De natura animalium, IV 46, X. 25; David Gordon White, Myths ofthe Dog-Man (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 26-30, 47-70.

kynokephalos 287

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