Hoofed Mammals

Bornean yellow muntjac. Muntiacus atherodes. Deer with a yellowish-orange coat and a dark-brown stripe along the spine. Described in 1982 by Colin Groves and Peter Grubb from specimens on the island of Borneo, Indonesia.

Chacoan peccary. Catagonus wagneri. Large (3-feet-high), brownish-gray wild pig first described from Pleistocene fossil remains in 1930. Although this animal was well known to the local Indians and its pelt was used by New York furriers for trimming hats and coats, it was not seen alive by scientists until 1974 when it was discovered by Ralph M. Wetzel. Found in the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. Ralph M. Wetzel, The Chacoan Peccary, Catagonus wagneri (Rus-coni) (Pittsburgh, Pa.: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 1977).

Dawson's caribou. Rangifer tarandus dawsoni. Small, grayish, swamp-dwelling subspecies of caribou found only on Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Its existence was confirmed in 1908, but it was deemed extinct by 1935.

Dusky musk deer. Moschus fuscus. First described in 1981 from a specimen in western Yunnan Province, China. Also found in Assam and Sikkim States, India, and in Myanmar. Distinguished by its very dark color.

Dwarf bharal. Pseudois schaeferi. The upper parts of this sheep are brownish gray with a tinge of slaty blue. Discovered in 1934 in the Upper Yangtze gorge, China, by E. Schaefer, it was considered a subspecies of the bharal in 1965, then recognized as a separate species in 1978.

Giant forest hog. Hylochoerus meinertzhageni. The world's largest pig, first brought back from

East Africa by Lt. Richard Meinertzhagen in 1904, though Liberian natives had told Europeans about the animal as long ago as the 1660s. Oddly enough, the animal was more common prior to its discovery, having been decimated by rinderpest in 1891. The giant forest hog reaches 7 feet in length and is more than 3 feet at the shoulder. Its current range is restricted to isolated localities from Liberia to Kenya.

Giant muntjac. Megamuntiacus vuquangensis. Described in 1996 by George Schaller and Elizabeth Vrba. Rob Timmins and Tom Evans had found muntjac horns in private homes in the Nakai Nam Theun Reserve in Laos, then came across a live specimen in Lak Xao in 1994. John MacKinnon also collected a skull in Vu Quang, Vietnam. The animal has since been found to be widespread in the Annam Highlands and has been recorded in Mondol Kiri Province, Cambodia.

Javan rhinoceros. Rhinoceros sondaicus. One-horned rhino with loose folds of skin that continue across its back. The horn is usually shorter than 10 inches. Until the mid-nineteenth century, the Javan rhinoceros was abundant from Bengal through Southeast Asia to Sumatra and Java. It was presumed extinct on the mainland after 1960, though sightings and tracks persisted in the Song Be, Lam Dong, and Dong Nai Provinces in Vietnam, as well as along the Thai-Myanmar border. Tracks were found in 1989 by George Schaller in the Dong Nai River area in Vietnam (now encompassed by the Nam Bai Cat Thien National Park), and photos of a live animal were obtained in July 1999 by Mike Baltzer. A track was also found in 1988 in Thung Yai Naresuan Wildlife Sanctuary in Thailand.

Kouprey. Bos sauveli. One of Asia's largest mammals and one of the world's rarest mammals, this large, gray forest ox (6 feet 3 inches at the shoulder) remained undescribed until 1937 when a young bull arrived at the Vincennes Zoo, whose director, Achille Urbain, identified it as a new species. The female's horns are lyre-shaped, while the male's are spread wide and frayed at the tips. Males have a dewlap that may almost reach the ground with age. The tail is long (3 feet—3 feet 6

inches), with a bushy tip. The animal was given its own genus (Novibos) in 1940, though it has been accepted as a true ox (Bos) since 1951. Some zoologists believe it to be either a hybrid of the Gaur (Bos gaurus), the Banteng (Bos javanicus), and the domestic Zebu, or the ur-species that produced the Zebu. Known to the Cambodian Khmer culture 800 years ago, it may also be a feral survival of a Khmer domestic breed. By 1986, the kouprey was thought to still occur in the southernmost provinces of Laos, in the Chuor Phnum Dangrek Mountains of eastern Thailand, and along the western edge of Vietnam, with its distribution centered on the northern plains of Cambodia.

Leaf muntjac. Muntiacus putaoensis. The smallest true deer in the world, the leaf muntjac only weighs about 25 pounds. It was discovered in northern Myanmar in 1997 by Alan Rabinowitz and is currently found in mountainous regions northeast of Putao and south of the Nam Tamai branch of the Mai Hka River in Myanmar.

Lesser brocket. Mazama bororo. A small deer discovered near Capao Bonito, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 1994.

Linh duong. Pseudonovibos spiralis. A bovid with 18-inch, spiraling horns, which attracted attention when they were collected in 1993 in a market stall in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, by Wolfgang Peter. The Vietnamese name translates as "holy goat." A living specimen has yet to be collected, though local hunters describe it as a buffalo-like animal. In 2000, zoologist Arnoult Se-veau and others ran DNA tests on four pairs of horns collected in 1925 and concluded that these specimens were horns of Domestic cattle (Bos taurus) twisted into a distinctive lyre shape with pliers and thus do not represent a new species. However, the controversy is far from settled; a 2000 Russian mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates the Linh duong is a valid buffalo (Bovina) species, and Robert H. Timm contends that two sets of trophy horns owned by the University of Kansas and obtained in Vietnam in 1929 belong to a genuine spiral-horned Pseudonovibos.

Mountain anoa. Bubalus quarlesi. Miniature water buffalo, weighing 350—650 pounds, with two short, straight horns; discovered in 1910 by P. A. Ouwens. Found only on Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Mountain nyala. Tragelaphus buxtoni. Little-known Ethiopian antelope first collected in 1908

by Ivor Buxton and not described until 1910 by Richard Lydekker. Dark grayish-brown, with faint white markings. The horns, only found on the males, grow 3—4 feet long. Stands 4 feet 6 inches at the shoulder and weighs about 500 pounds.

Nangchen horse. A breed of horse discovered in 1993 in northern Tibet by Michel Peissel. Apparently bred in isolation for more than fourteen centuries by nomadic horsemen at altitudes up to 15,700 feet, the horse has an enlarged heart and lungs to cope with the heights. Michel Peissel, The Last Barbarians: The Discovery of the Source of the Mekong in Tibet (New York: Henry Holt, 1997).

Northern white rhinoceros. Ceratotherium simum cottoni. One of the largest known land animals. Discovered by Alfred St. Hill Gibbons and Maj. P. H. G. Powell-Cotton in 1900. At the time of its discovery, this subspecies ranged from northwest Uganda to Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, and Sudan. Now critically endangered, it exists only in the Garamba National Park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where there were thirty individuals in 2000.

Okapi. Okapia johnstoni. The poster animal for cryptozoology, this odd, reclusive, hoofed mammal was discovered in 1901 by Sir Harry Johnston, governor of Uganda, after a year of investigating stories and tracks of a mysterious forest animal known to the Mbuti Pygmies of the Democratic Republic of the Congo as o(k)api (misrepresented as "atti" by Henry Morton Stanley ten

Okapi National Park
Okapi (Okapia johnstoni), discovered in 1901. (© 2002 ArtToday.com, Inc., an IMSI Company)

years earlier). At first thought to be a zebra because of its distinctive stripes, the okapi was identified as a short-necked cousin of the giraffe after Johnston obtained some skulls. The first live specimen taken out of Africa was delivered to the Antwerp Zoo in 1919. The animal stands just under 5 feet 6 inches at the shoulder and has bold, black-and-white markings on its rump and hind legs. An exceptionally long, blue-black tongue allows it to pluck and tear leaves and twigs. Now confined to the dense Ituri Forest in the northeast Congo, the okapi has enjoyed absolute protection since 1933. The Okapi Wildlife Reserve (http://www. unesco.org/whc/sites/718.htm) was created in 1992. One of the rock paintings in the Tassili N'Ajjer Plateau in Algeria may represent an okapi; difficult to date, the Tassili frescoes were produced sometime between 6000 and 1000 b.c. An excellent description and history is found in Susan Lyn-daker Lindsey, Mary Neel Green, and Cynthia L. Bennett, The Okapi: Mysterious Animal of Congo-Zaire (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1999).

Pygmy hippopotamus. Hexaprotodon liberien-sis. Not as amphibious as Hippopotamus am-phibius, this hippo stands only 2 feet 6 inches high at the shoulder. The head is smaller, and the eyes, ears, and nostrils do not protrude as much as those of the common hippopotamus. The feet leave a distinctive, four-toed track. Controversy raged in the nineteenth century over whether skulls of this animal represented a new species or whether they were merely juvenile or freak specimens of the common hippo, even though a living animal was displayed at the Dublin Zoo for a few weeks in 1870. Hans Schomburgk captured five others in Liberia in 1913, leading to the pygmy hippo's acceptance as a distinct genus. The animals are restricted to two areas: in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Cote d'Ivoire and between the Cross River and Niger River deltas in Nigeria. Humans may have hunted this species to extinction on Cyprus by 8000 b.c. A. H. Simmons, "Extinct Pygmy Hippopotamus and Early Man in Cyprus," Nature 333 (1988): 554-557.

Pygmy hog. Sus salvanius. The smallest pig (with a total length of 2 feet and a shoulder height of less than 1 foot), thought to have become extinct by the 1960s. Rediscovered near Mangaldai, Assam State, India, in 1971 by Dick Graves.

Queen of Sheba's gazelle. Gazella bilkis. Described in 1985 by Colin Groves and Douglas Lay from unusual skulls found in Yemen. Only known from the high-altitude plains and hills around the city of Ta'izz, Yemen. The animal is probably extinct in the wild, but four of these beautiful gazelles, collected in 1996, are held in a private collection in Qatar.

Red goral. Naemorhedus baileyi. A bright red goat-antelope found in the Yunnan Province of China, Tibet, Assam, and Myanmar that was first described by Reginald Pocock in 1914. In 1961, R. W. Hayman thought some specimens were distinct and named them N. cranbrooki, but these have been considered conspecific since 1980.

Riwoche horse. A previously unsuspected breed of wild horse was discovered in a remote valley in northeastern Tibet in October 1995 by ethnologist Michel Peissel. Just under 4 feet high at the shoulder, the horse has apparently been isolated from other breeds for many centuries. It has a black stripe down its back, stripes on its back legs, and a black mane. Michel Peissel, The Last Barbarians: The Discovery of the Source of the Mekong in Tibet (New York: Henry Holt, 1997).

Roosevelt's muntjac. Muntiacus rooseveltorum. Found in 1929 near Muang Lo, Laos, this species was thought extinct until rediscovered in Lak Xao, Laos, by George Schaller in 1995. It has a tuft of orange hair between its antlers and a black chin. Specimens were found in Thanh Hoa Province, Vietnam, in 1998.

Saola. Pseudoryx nghetinhensis. Discovered in May 1992 by John MacKinnon in the Vu Quang Nature Reserve, Vietnam, this antelope-like ox has long, recurved, spindle-shaped horns; a cinnamon coat; large facial glands; and distinctive black-and-white markings on its face. Standing 3 feet tall at the shoulder, the adult male is 4 feet 6 inches long and weighs about 175 pounds, making it the largest Asian mammal discovered since the kouprey in 1937. The animal appears to be the sole survivor of a family called the hemibovids, ancestral to both oxen and antelope, that was thought to have died out 4 million years ago. The first living specimen was caught in June 1994. Its popular name, sao la, means "spindle horn." Also known as the Vu Quang ox, it is found in Laos as well. Vu Van Dung, John MacKinnon, et al., "A New Species of Living Bovid from Vietnam," Nature 363 (1993): 443-445.

Sumatran rhinoceros. Dicerorhinus sumatren-sis. The smallest rhinoceros, the Sumatran can be

Pseudoryx Nghetinhensis
The Saola, or Vu Quang ox (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), discovered in May 1992. (William M. Rebsamen/Fortean Picture Library)

recognized by the two deep skin folds encircling its body between the legs and the trunk and by its thick coat of short, stiff hairs. The snout has two horns. Reaches a shoulder height of 4 feet—4 feet 6 inches. Its historical range included the foothills of the Himalayas in Bhutan; the Khasi Hills of India; portions of Myanmar, Thailand, and peninsular Malaysia; Sumatra; and Borneo. As of 2000, there were only about 300 individuals in southern Malaysia, Sumatra, and Sabah State in Borneo. Its occurrence in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia has not been confirmed.

Truong Son muntjac. Muntiacus truongsonen-sis. A small, black deer with tiny antlers, first recorded in the Truong Son Mountain range in central Vietnam in April 1997 and described in 1998 by John MacKinnon.

Vietnamese warty pig. Sus bucculentis. Named from a skull discovered in 1892 in Vietnam by Pierre-Marie Hende, though no living specimen has yet been found. A partial skull and tissue sample turned up in Laos in 1995, matching local descriptions of a pig with yellowish fur and a long snout.

Wild Bactrian camel. Camelus sp. nov. DNA

tests conducted on the remains of wild camels from Lop Nur, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, indicate that these animals may be sufficiently different from other camels to constitute a separate species. These camels also have the unusual ability to drink desert saltwater without ill effect. "Salt Water-Drinking Camel May Be Separate Species," Reuters, February 7, 2001.

Wood bison. Bison bison athabascae. A bison with a larger body frame, longer appendages and horns, wider hooves, and a denser and darker coat than the plains Bison (Bison bison bison). However, the two subspecies have been known to interbreed and produce viable young. Thought extinct in the wild by 1940, a population of 200 of this hardy subspecies was rediscovered in 1957 in Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta, Canada. Since 1970, recovery efforts have reestablished six disease-free, free-ranging wild herds in Canada (2,400 bison)—the Chitek Lake, Hay-Zama, Mackenzie, Nahanni, Nordquist, and Yukon herds.

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