A humanlike or apelike Entity of North America, possessing some of the characteristics of Giant Hominids or North American Apes.
Etymology: Coined by Jerome Clark as a catchall term for humanoids reported in the midwestern and eastern United States and Canada.
Variant names: Big hairy monster (BHM), Billiwack monster (in southern California), Booger, Buenafoot (in southern California), Cannibal Giant, Dwayyo, Eastern bigfoot, Fluorescent Freddie, GOATMAN, Goonyak (in Vermont), Grassman (in Ohio), Lake Worth Monster, Manbeast, Manimal, Momo, Old slipperyskin (in Vermont), Old yellow top (in Ontario), Ole woolly, Orange eyes (in Ohio), Precambrian Shield man, Taku he (Dakota/Siouan, "what's that?"), Wejuk (in Vermont), Wood devil, Wookie, Woolly booger, Yeahoh (in Kentucky).
PP'hysical description: Not as uniform as the Bigfoot of the Pacific Northwest, though always cover ed wit h hair and walking on t wo legs (hence it s name). It's difficult t o gener alize t r ait s from reports that might have multiple causes, but some of t he following feat ur es ar e usually pr esent. Height, 4—9 feet, t hough sizes up to 12 feet ar e ment ioned. Hair or fur is r eddish-br own to black, often described as 6-8 inches long. Often distinctly lacking in facial features, but a catlike face is occasionally reported. Red, or
ange, yellow, or green glowing eyes. Flat, broad nose. Pointed ears. Werewolflike fangs. Mane. Long arms. Hands are sometimes clawed. Long legs.
Behavior: Primarily noct urnal. Usually has an awkwar d, bipedal gait but somet imes r uns on all fours. Said to be able t o swim. Occasionally seen with young. Reported calls are moans, grunts, howls, high-pitched shrieks. Strong, putrid odor like decaying flesh or rotten eggs. These creatures are sometimes ascribed such paranormal features as invulnerability, transparency, insub-stantiality, invisibility, and the ability to disappear instantaneously. Appears to show interest in and have no fear of human dwellings. Dislikes car s and dogs, which oft en r eact wit h gr eat fright. Sometimes associated with unidentified flying object (UFO) sight ings.
Tracks: Anywhere from two- to six-toed. Three-toed are perhaps commonest and have been reported from the South, the Midwest, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and southern California. Length, up to 14 inches. Stride, up to 5 feet. Hair samples have been found.
All primates have five toes. Any Hairy biped that leaves clear imprints showing anything less t han five t oes const it ut es an ext r eme evolut ion-ary anomaly. Pentadactyly (having five fingers or toes) is a common and primitive feature of rept iles and mammals. However, it is not an essential requirement, and many animals have modified t he plan: fr ogs only have four digit s, cows have two, horses have dropped all but one, and snakes have gotten rid of legs altogether. Most birds get by walking on only four (three in front and one behind), while the Ostrich (Struthio camelus) only has two. If three-toed, humanlike bipeds really exist as flesh-and-blood creatures and are not paranormal apparitions, it would be most interesting to find out more about their foot structure. Perhaps three toes is better than five when you've chosen a swamp or wetland as your habitat.
Habitat: Secluded areas, often forested wetlands or mountainous regions.
Distribution: Nearly every U.S. state and Canadian province. Most sightings represent only transient individuals.
A partial list of places where Hairy bipeds have been reported follows:
Alabama—Choccolocco Valley, Town Creek.
Arkansas—Center Ridge, Greene County, Jonesboro, Leachville, Poinsett County, St. Francis County, South Crossett, Springdale.
California—Antelope Valley, Borrego Sink, Lytle Creek, Pearblossom, San Gorgonio Mountains, Santa Paula.
Colorado—Green Mountain Falls.
Connecticut—Bristol, Crystal Lake Reservoir, Winsted.
Illinois—Big Muddy River, Cairo, Center-ville, Chittyville, Creve Coeur, East Peoria, Eff-ingham, Farmer City, Kickapoo Creek, Mur-physboro.
Indiana—Attica, French Lick, Galveston, Hoosier National Forest, Knox County, Pike County, Richmond, Rising Sun, Roachdale, Sharpsville, Winslow.
Kentucky—Albany, Leslie County, Trimble County.
Labrador, Canada—Goose Bay.
Louisiana—Cotton Island, Honey Island Swamp.
Manitoba, Canada—Gypsumville, Steinbach, Whiteshell Provincial Park.
Maryland—Calvert County, Churchville, Dickerson, Harford County, Kingsville, Prince George's County, Sykesville.
Massachusetts—Bridgewater, Raynham Center.
Michigan—Byron, Charlotte, Dowagiac Swamp, Fenton, Houghton Lake State Forest, Lake City, Marshall, Mason, Mio, Monroe, Os-coda County, Port Huron, Saginaw, Shiawassee River, Sister Lakes, Tuscola County, Yale.
Minnesota—northern part of state.
Missouri—Louisiana, Pacific, Troy.
Nebraska—south of Lincoln.
Nevada—Nevada Test Site.
New Hampshire—Hollis, Salisbury.
New Jersey—Great Bear Swamp, High Point, Middletown, Vineland.
New York—Burlington County, Ellisburg, Morristown, Mount Misery, Richmondtown, Sherman, Watertown, Whitehall.
Newfoundland, Canada—Trinity Bay.
North Carolina—Dismal Swamp, Tabor City.
Ohio—Alliance, Brookside Park, Carlisle, Coshocton County, Defiance, Eaton, Huron, Kenmore, Kimbolton, Mansfield, Minerva, Monroeville, Muskingum County, Newcomer-stown, Point Isabel, Rome.
Oklahoma—Canton, Kiamichi Mountains, Mountain Fork River, Nowata, Noxie, Tahle-quah, Wann.
Ontario, Canada—Cobalt, Webequie, Wee-nusk Indian Reservation.
Oregon—Conser Lake, Roseburg.
Pennsylvania—Allegheny County, Allison, Beaver County, Bradford County, Buffalo Mills, Chester County, Chestnut Ridge, Derry Township, East Pennsboro Township, Edin-boro, Fayette County, Gray Station, Indiana County, Jeannette, Lancaster, Latrobe, Lock Haven, Somerset County, Uniontown, Westmoreland County, Whitney.
Saskatchewan, Canada—Grand Rapids.
South Dakota—Standing Rock Indian Reservation.
Tennessee—Charlotte, Flintville, Lascassas, Knox County, Monteagle Mountain.
Texas—Bells, Caddo, Denton, Haskell, Lamar County, Lake Worth, Newton County, Paris, Peerless, Polk County.
Vermont—Chittenden, Hartland, Rutland County, Williamstown.
Virginia—Colonial Beach, Middletown.
West Virginia—Cacapon Bridge, Davis, Hickory Flats, Marlinton, Parsons.
Wisconsin—Benton, Cashton, Deltox Swamp, Grafton, Granton, Jefferson, Medford.
Significant sightings: Riley W. Smith saw a naked hairy man, about 6 feet tall, while picking berries near Winsted, Connecticut, on August 17, 1895. The incident was the first of about twenty that allegedly took place in western Connecticut and the Catskill Mountains of New York over the next few weeks. Widely and possibly erroneously regarded as a hoax by newspaperman Louis T. Stone, the original incident may have involved a bear.
An apelike, bipedal creature with a yellow head and mane was seen by workers near the Violet Mine east of Cobalt, Ontario, in September 1906. In 1923, two prospectors saw a similar yellow-headed, black-haired animal eating blueberries; they thought it was a bear until they threw a rock at it, prompting it to get up and walk away on two legs. Later sightings earned it the nickname "Old yellow top." The last sighting was in August 1970 when Aimée Latreille, the driver of a bus carrying twenty-seven miners, was forced to swerve after he saw an apelike creature with a light mane cross the road; the bus nearly had a fatal crash down a nearby rock cut.
In August 1963, Harlan E. Ford and a friend encountered a huge humanoid in Honey Island Swamp near Slidell, Louisiana. It glared menacingly at them and ran away on two legs.
In May 1964, near Sister Lakes, Michigan, Gordon Brown and his brother saw a hairy man about 9 feet tall who made a whimpering sound. Shortly afterward, three teenagers saw a 7-foot creature with a black face running through the underbrush in Silver Creek Township. Many other witnesses came forth and were named in extensive newspaper coverage.
A green, 10-foot-tall monster with glowing red eyes was seen in March 1965 by teenagers in the woods south of French Lick, Indiana. They called it "Fluorescent Freddie."
In 1965, two teenagers were chased from their campfire by a 9- to 10-foot hairy creature on the north slope of the San Gorgonio Mountains, California.
On August 13, 1965, Christine Van Acker and her mother were driving near Monroe, Michigan, when a hairy, 7-foot giant stepped in front of their car. Van Acker hit the brakes, stalling the car, and the creature reached through the open window and grabbed the top of her head. The women's screams and horn honking apparently made it retreat.
On May 19, 1969, George Kaiser saw a man-sized creature covered in black fur on his farm near Rising Sun, Indiana. It made a strange grunting sound, jumped over a ditch, and swiftly ran down the road. Later, footprints with three small toes and a big toe were found. A greenish-white UFO was seen by a neighbor the next night.
Odd, froglike noises woke up teenagers Wayne Hall and Dave Chapman early on July 24, 1972, at the latter's home near Crystal Lake Reservoir in northwestern Connecticut. Looking outside, they saw an 8-foot hairy creature. It crossed a road and moved around in the shadows near a horse barn. After forty-five minutes, it crossed the road again and disappeared in the woods by the lake.
On the night of April 22, 1973, William Roemermann, Brian Goldojarb, and Richard Engels saw a BlGFOOT-like creature near the Sycamore Flats campground in Big Rock Canyon, Los Angeles County, California. It chased their truck for about twenty seconds, its long arms swinging in front of its chest. On returning, they found many huge, three-toed tracks.
In May and June 1973, an apelike creature terrorized the area around Sykesville in Carroll County, Maryland. Five-toed, 13-inch footprints were found, separated by a stride of 6 feet.
On June 25, 1973, Randy Needham and Judy Johnson were parked near a boat ramp on the Big Muddy River near Murphysboro, Illinois, when they heard a piercing cry that came from the nearby woods. They looked up and saw the sound came from a huge shape lumbering toward them. The creature was about 7 feet tall and covered with a matted, whitish hair. Others saw and heard the same creature over the next two weeks, and it reappeared in the summers of 1974, 1975, 1988, and 1989.
At 4:30 AM. on September 2, 1973, Chester Yothers woke up and saw a BlGFOOT-like creature only 5 feet away outside his trailer near Whitney, Pennsylvania, apparently looking at the house next door. He woke his wife and called the police, who arrived shortly afterward. The monster was gone, but they found wet footprints on the concrete and in the flower bed.
Dennis Smith and Jimmy Slate heard pounding and shrieking noises in the woods next to Overlook Drive, near Watertown, New York, in the early morning of August 10, 1976. As the sun was rising, they saw an erect, black hominid walking down the road about two city blocks away. When Smith yelled, the creature turned around and ran in the opposite direction. Later, two 15-inch-long tracks, trampled grass, and some long hairs were found.
On May 18, 1977, two thirteen-year-old boys were walking their dog near the historic Roberts Covered Bridge south of Eaton, Ohio, when the dog got frightened and they smelled a rotten-meat odor. Turning around, they saw a 9-foot, apelike creature with dirty brown hair, white eyes, and long arms; it chased them toward the road. Both boys were terrified for weeks after the incident. Two 14-inch, humanlike prints were found near Seven Mile Creek on a nearby farm.
Some twenty-eight sightings of BlGFOOT-like creatures 6—9 feet tall were reported in wooded areas around Little Eagle in the Standing Rock Reservation in South Dakota from September to November 1977. Numerous large footprints were found, and high-pitched shrieks were heard repeatedly. Cecelia Thunder Shield said the being was tall with gray, shining hair and a black face.
In January 1980, an employee of Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company saw a 6- to 7-foot hairy creature while driving along a highway at the northern end of the Nevada Test Site. It disappeared in the sagebrush.
James Guyette saw a huge hairy humanoid walking and swinging its arms along an interstate highway near Hartland Dam, Vermont, in April 1984. It moved down the embankment and headed west.
A woodsman of Gray Station, Pennsylvania, was walking at the forest edge at dusk on December 13, 1986, when something threw a large piece of wood at him. He looked up and saw a hairy creature, standing 8—9 feet tall with wide shoulders and long arms, blocking the path.
After a moment, it turned, stooped, and ran into the woods.
Gary Lee Hayes was hunting near a tract of the Houghton Lake State Forest, Michigan, on November 25, 1990, when he saw a tall, upright creature moving on the crest of a nearby hill. It had black hair all over its body and was 7 feet tall. The creature walked down to a large beaver dam, squatted down, stood up, then went back uphill.
Robert Toal found huge, human-shaped tracks in the snow on his property in Kingsville, Maryland, on the night of February 4-5, 1995. Field investigators from the Baltimore-area Enigma Project arrived a few days later and photographed the tracks, which were 20 inches long, 11 inches wide, but only 1 inch deep in the powdery snow. The tracks had an average stride of 4 feet 10 inches in a straight line and apparently passed through a 4-foot-high wire fence. Since even humans weighing less than 200 pounds made deeper impressions in the snow, the Enigma group thought these were the full-body impressions of a much lighter animal, possibly a jumping rabbit.
Early in the morning of March 28, 2000, James Hughes was driving his newspaper route near Grafton, Wisconsin, when he saw an 8-foot hairy humanoid standing by the side of the road. The creature was carrying something that looked like a dead goat.
Human tracks 14 inches long and 5 inches wide were found in early June 2001 on the Weenusk Indian Reservation at the mouth of the Winisk River on Hudson Bay, Ontario. The stride measured 6 feet.
Present status: Distinctions between NORTH American Apes, Devil Monkeys, Hairy bipeds, and BlGPOOTare nebulous and possibly arbitrary. In general, NORTH American Apes are tailless and primarily quadrupedal, and they resemble chimpanzees; Devil Monkeys are tailed and resemble baboons; Hairy bipeds cover a wide range of descriptions, from apes to WlLD-MEN and even paranormal ENTITIES; BlGFOOTis a robust, tall hominid with a range that seems restricted to the Pacific Northwest.
(1) Many hoaxes, such as pranksters wearing masks or suits. The Selbyville, Delaware, swamp monster of 1964 was admittedly a hoax perpetrated by a man in a monster suit.
(2) Mentally unstable or homeless humans living in the woods. This explanation may have been especially true for nineteenth-century reports.
(3) Misidentified American black bears (Ursus americanus).
(4) Monkeys or apes escaped from zoos or circuses.
(5) Entities associated with UFOs, suggested by Stan Gordon and Don Worley.
(6) Occurrences of Bigfoot outside its traditional range in the Pacific Northwest. The only comparative analysis of Hairy biped data in eastern North America has been done by Craig Heinselman, who looked at 654 reports from fifteen eastern and northeastern states between 1838 and 2001 and found few differences in height or other narrowly selected physical characteristics from the Pacific Northwest BiGFOO T He arrived at a tentative population estimate of 210-420 adult individuals for all fifteen states.
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1965, p. 22; Gene Caesar, "The Hellzapoppin' Hunt for the Michigan Monster," True, June
1966, pp. 59-60, 84-85; Ivan T. Sanderson, "Wisconsin's Abominable Snowman," Argosy, April 1969, pp. 27-29, 70; Warren Smith, "America's Terrifying Woodland Monster-Men," Saga, July 1969, pp. 34-37, 92-94; John A. Keel, Strange Creatures from Time and Space (Greenwich, Conn.: Fawcett, 1970); Jerome Clark, "On the Trail of Unidentified Furry Objects," Fate 26 (August 1973): 56-64; Allen V. Noe, "ABSMal Affairs in Pennsylvania and Elsewhere," Pursuit, no. 24 (October 1973): 84-89; Stan Gordon, "UFOs in Relation to Creature Sightings in Pennsylvania," in Walter H. Andrus Jr., ed., MUFON 1974 UFO Symposium Proceedings (Seguin, Tex.: Mutual
UFO Network, 1974), pp. 132-154; Jerome Clark and Loren Coleman, "Swamp Slobs Invade Illinois," Fate 27 (July 1974): 84-88; Berthold Eric Schwarz, "Berserk: A UFO-Creature Encounter," Flying Saucer Review 20, no. 1 (July 1974): 3-11; Milton LaSalle, "Bigfoot Sighting," Pursuit, no. 40 (Fall 1977): 120-123; Mark A. Hall, "Contemporary Stories of 'Taku He' or 'Bigfoot' in South Dakota as Drawn from Newspaper Accounts," Minnesota Archeologist 37 (1978): 63-78; Jerome Clark and Loren Coleman, Creatures of the Outer Edge (New York: Warner, 1978); Mark A. Hall, "Stories of 'Bigfoot' in Iowa during 1978 as Drawn from Newspaper Sources," Minnesota Archeologist 38 (1979): 2-17; S. Stover, "Does Maryland Have a Sasquatch?" INFO Journal, no. 34 (March-April 1979): 2-6; Dennis Pilichis, Night Siege: The Northern Ohio UFO-Creature Invasion (Rome, Ohio: Dennis Pilichis, 1982); Bruce G. Hallenbeck, Bob Bartholomew, and Paul Bartholomew, "Bigfoot in the Adirondacks," Adirondack Bits 'n Pieces 1, no. 3 (Spring-Summer 1984): 21-26, 49-50, 58-61; Mark Opsasnick, The Maryland Bigfoot Reference Guide (Greenbelt, Md.: Mark Opsasnick, 1987); Mike Marinacci, Mysterious California (Los Angeles, Calif.: Panpipes, 1988), pp. 84-86, 93-94; Mark Chorvinsky and Mark Opsasnick, "The Selbyville Swamp Monster Exposed," Strange Magazine, no. 4 (1989): 6-8; Michael T. Shoemaker, "Searching for the Historical Bigfoot," Strange Magazine, no. 5 (1990): 18-23, 57-62; David E. Philips, Legendary Connecticut (Willimantic, Conn.: Curbstone, 1992), pp. 175-177; Michael T. Shoemaker, "The Winsted Wild Man Revisited," Strange Magazine, no. 11 (SpringSummer 1993): 30-31, 59; Joseph A. Citro, Green Mountain Ghosts, Ghouls and Unsolved Mysteries (Montpelier: Vermont Life, 1994), pp. 93-101; Michael A. Frizzell, "The Kingsville Tracks," INFO Journal, no. 74 (Winter 1996): 17-21; Loren Coleman, "Three Toes Are Better than Five," Fortean Times, no. 98 (June 1997): 44; Christopher L. Murphy, Bigfoot in Ohio: Encounters with the Grassman (New Westminster, B.C., Canada: Pyramid, 1997); Christopher Kiernan Coleman, Strange Tales of the Dark and Bloody Ground (Nashville, Tenn.: Rutledge Hill, 1998), pp. 53-55; Don Keating, "Active Sasquatch in Coshocton County, Ohio," North American BioFortean Review 1, no. 1 (April 1999): 5, 41, http://www. strangeark.com/nabr/NABR1.pdf; Dana Holyfield, Encounters with the Honey Island Swamp Monster (Pearl River, La.: Honey Island Swamp Books, 1999); Keith Edwards, "Wisconsin a New Home for Bigfoot?" Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, April 4, 2000; Tim Swartz, "The Hairy Ones," Strange Magazine, no. 21 (Fall 2000), on line at http://www. strangemag.com; Ron Schaffner, "Retrospective: Preble County, Ohio Incident," Crypto Hominology Special, no. 1 (April 7, 2001), pp. 50-58, at http://www.strangeark.com/crypto/ Cryptohominids.pdf; Francine Dube, "Big Footprints Stir Sasquatch Speculation," National Post (Canada), June 25, 2001; Joe Nickell, "Tracking the Swamp Monsters," Skeptical Inquirer 25, no. 4 (July 2001): 15; Craig Heinselman, "Eastern Sasquatch Analysis: Potential Patterns or Dubious Data?" paper presented at the Third East Coast Bigfoot Researchers Meeting, September 22, 2001, Delmont, Pennsylvania; Chester Moore Jr., "Monsterous Sounds: A Field Investigation of Texas Bigfoot Vocalizations," The Anomalist, no. 10 (2002): 13-19.
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