Eastern Puma

The puma is indeed returning to its former range in the eastern United States and Canada, though this fact has only been reluctantly accepted by naturalists in recent years. Part of the reluctance has been based on imprecise witness descriptions, which can sometimes venture into the bizarre or supernatural. (Reports from southern states technically constitute sightings of the Southern puma, which still exists in very small numbers in southern Florida.)

Although a case could be made for separating Eastern puma reports into two categories— those conforming to a traditional puma that is expanding its range and those involving a melanistic or other aberrant animal turning up in areas that probably could not support a large cat—the task is too daunting. Black animals are reported from likely Eastern puma habitats, and perfectly reasonable puma reports come from areas where the animal has never been seen before or since. Misidentifications are rampant, and Alien Big Cats (whatever they may be) seem to have a presence in North America. Therefore, all the reports are lumped together in this category except for the ManeD American Lions, which at least has an easily identifiable nonpuma characteristic.

Scientific names: Puma concolor couguar, since 1993; formerly, Felis concolor, a name given by Carl von Linné in 1771.

Variant names: Beast of Bladenboro, Booger Catamount, Catawampus, Critter, Devil cat, Eastern panther, Gallywampus, Ghost cat, Glawackus, Indian devil, Mansfield mystery cat (in Massachusetts), Michichibi, Montie the Monster, Nellie the Lion, Ozark Howler, Phantom panther, SanTer, VArminT Wampus cat, Whirling whimpus, Whistling wampus, Woofin nanny, Wooleneag, Wowzer, Yati wasagi (Mikasuki/Muskogean, "separated man"), Zoominzacker (in North Carolina).

Physical description: Powerfully built large cat. Length, 7-8 feet including tail. Shoulder height, 2-3 feet. Weight, more than 200 pounds. Most reports are of tan pumas, though about 16-30 percent describe a gray or black pelt. Head described as both large and small. Short, pricked ears. Glowing greenish, yellow, or red eyes. Long, slender tail.

Behavior: Nocturnal. A female in heat calls with loud screams. When its natural prey (deer)

has been reduced, it will attack livestock, especially chickens and rabbits, though goats, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats, and cows are also vulnerable. Sometimes, only parts of animals are favored, such as pigs' ears. Pumas tend to avoid people, although attacks have increased since 1990; consequently, it is difficult to reconcile stories of fearless, intelligently aggressive behavior toward persons that are occasionally reported, from midwestern states especially. At least two or three reports involve an animal that can stand on its hind legs, a feat that no puma can perform.

Tracks: Front feet are larger than hind feet and are ahead of or partially overlapped by the rear feet. Length, 3.5—6 inches wide, 3—5 inches long. Heel pads have squared-off fronts and three lobes at the rear. Toes are small, teardrop-shaped, and widely spaced compared to a dog's. Rear feet are asymmetrical. Prints are 25—30 inches apart. Claw marks are sometimes reported; though this is more characteristic of a dog, big cat tracks will show claws in certain terrain or when the animal is sprinting or leaping.

Habitat: Mountains, forests, swamps.

Distribution: Southeastern Canada and the United States east of the Mississippi River. Black pumas have also been reported in Washington, Texas, and California. In some places in the United States and Canada, puma sightings correlate closely with blgioot"hot spots."

A partial list of places where Eastern pumas have been reported follows:

Alabama—South Mobile County, Nauvoo, Tuscaloosa.

Arkansas—Logan County, Mena, Russellville.

Connecticut—Chaplin, Glastonbury, and places in the northeastern portion of the state.

Delaware—Concord, Harrington, Wilmington.

Georgia—Bulloch County, Savannah, Stockbridge.

Illinois—Alexander County, Centralia, Champaign County, Clarksdale, Decatur, East Carondelet, Edwardsville, Forest Park, Hampton, Itasca, Jasper County, Kaskaskia, Mahomet, Momence, Olive Branch, Oquawka, Pana, Peoria, Plainfield, and many places in the northeastern portion of the state.

Indiana—Hancock County, Knox County,

Puma Concolor Female
The Puma (Puma concolor). (© 2002 ArtToday.com, Inc., an IMSI Company)

Lebanon, Monument City, Paradise, Perry County, Richmond, Rising Sun, South Bend.

Kentucky—Floyd County, Russellville.

Louisiana —St. Mary Parish, Vidalia.

Maine—Baxter State Park, Blue Hill Mountain, Cape Elizabeth, Fryeburg, Hartland, Little St. John Lake, Waldo County, Westport Island.

Maryland—Clinton, Frostburg, Garrett County, Harford County, Street.

Massachusetts—Hockomock Swamp, Mansfield, Shutesbury, Truro.

Michigan—Canton Township, Cass County, Clare County, Oakland County, Perronville, Seul Choix Point, Sturgis, the Upper Peninsula from Watersmeet to Drummond Island.

Minnesota—Bemidji, Hopkins, Hugo, Plymouth, St. Louis County, Watonwan County.

Mississippi—Bay Springs.

Missouri—Lamar, Mound Creek, Maries County, Phelps County, Pulaski County, Wellsville.

New Brunswick, Canada—Albert County,

Fredericton, Juniper, Mundleville, St. John County, Queens County, Waasis.

New Hampshire—Benton, Stewartstown.

New Jersey—Cumberland County, Maurice River, Salem County, Sussex County.

New York—Brookhaven, Eden, Elmira, Ronkonkoma, Spencer, Van Etten.

North Carolina—Bladenboro, Concord, Fontana Dam, Greensboro, Rowan County, Sampson County, and places in the northwestern portion of the state.

Ohio—Allen County, Bluffton, Cincinnati (forested areas), Coshocton County, Kirkwood, Minerva, Oak Harbor, Richard Township, Springfield, Urbana, Wellston, Westerville.

Oklahoma —Arkoma, Verdigris.

Ontario, Canada—Algoma, Bruce Peninsula, Marathon, Orient Bay, Saugeen River.

Pennsylvania —Allegheny County, Armstrong County, Cameron County, Clarion County, Clearfield County, Clinton County, Crawford County, Erie County, Forest County,

Lycoming County, Pottstown, Schuylkill County, Sullivan County, Tarentum.

South Carolina—Charleston area, Georgetown County, Santee River, White Oak Swamp.

Tennessee—Carthage, Crossville, Indian Mound.

Vermont—Berlin, Bethel, Bridport, Crafts-bury, Orwell, Rutland.

Virginia —Abingdon, Bedford County, Prince William County, Purgatory Mountain, Wise County.

West Virginia—Hardy County, Pocahontas County, Randolph County, Wyoming County.

Wisconsin—Lincoln County, Manitowoc, Oneida County, Rhinelander, Sauk County.

Black pumas in western states and Central America:

California—East Bay area, Las Trampas Regional Park, Marin County, Ventura County.

Honduras—Puerto Castillo.

Mexico —Sinaloa State.

Texas—Fort Worth.

Washington—Port Angeles.

Significant sightings: Reports of mystery felines prior to the 1950s were not taken seriously by zoologists. Stories of the GlawACKUS, Nellie the Lion, and Wampus cats in the South were collected primarily by folklorists and Forteans.

Marian Harpan Peduzzi saw a glossy, black panther in 1946 near Berlin, Vermont. It was 4 feet in length, with an elegant, curved tail.

On March 29, 1947, Bruce S. Wright discovered three sets of unmistakable puma tracks (two adults and one cub) on the border between Albert and St. John Counties, New Brunswick. These were the first puma tracks recorded in eastern Canada in more than 100 years.

Game warden Paul G. Myers shot and wounded a black cat near Decatur, Illinois, on October 25, 1955.

Walter Bigelow and his wife saw a strange animal cross the road near Mound Creek, Missouri, in the path of their car headlights in mid-July 1957. It was black, 3 feet long, tailless, and "rather stubby." Later, whatever the animal was, it scared some hunting dogs that tried to flush it.

On June 2, 1963, Bill Chambers watched a jet-black puma for fifteen minutes from his pickup truck near Mahomet, Illinois. It was hunting in a clover patch 190 yards away. He estimated its shoulder height as 14—15 inches and its total length as 4 feet 6 inches to 5 feet.

In the summer of 1966, a hairy, catlike animal locals called the Woofin nanny killed a number of animals and pets near Greensboro, North Carolina, bleeding the carcasses dry through puncture wounds.

Bruce S. Wright and his wife were driving west from Fredericton, New Brunswick, on September 28, 1966, when they saw a puma cross the road in front of them in broad daylight.

On April 10, 1970, Mike Busby was stopped by the side of the road south of Olive Branch, Illinois, when an animal with glowing, greenish eyes, 6 feet tall, black, and standing upright, attacked him. Tumbling him about, the creature tore his shirt and inflicted some scratches on his arm, chest, and abdomen. It was scared by a passing truck and loped away.

In September 1975, citizens of Stockbridge, Georgia, reported a black panther that screamed at night. After the newspaper stories broke, James Rutledge revealed that he had shot and killed a black cat the previous spring, but he declined to reveal where he had buried it.

In April 1976, a large male cougar was shot and killed in Pocahontas County, West Virginia, after it had killed a farmer's sheep. Two days later, an apparently pregnant female was captured alive. The state's Department of Natural Resources no longer has the paperwork on the case.

From April to June 1977, Sampson County, North Carolina, was plagued by a mystery animal that mangled pet cats and dogs, damaged trailer homes and porch screens, and left numerous clawless, four-toed tracks in the vicinity.

Charles and Helen Marks found more than 200 prints, some with claws, around their trailer court in Westerville, Ohio, on June 10, 1979. There were sightings of panthers in the area in May and June.

In late September 1981, William and Marsha Medeiros got within 50 feet of a puma along a trail in the Cape Cod National Seashore near Truro, Massachusetts.

On June 1, 1982, a Pittsburgh television crew filmed a thirty-second videotape of a tan puma near Tarentum, Pennsylvania, on Ruth O'Brien's property, where a series of sightings and puma screams had been reported since July 1979.

On April 24, 1989, Hubert Graham watched a tawny, juvenile puma sunning itself for twenty minutes in a clearing below his fire-watch tower on Blue Hill Mountain, south of Bangor, Maine.

A videotape of a puma was taken near Waa-sis, New Brunswick, in the spring of 1990 by Roger Noble.

In August 1992, a couple in Street, Maryland, watched for twenty minutes and took photographs of a light-brown puma the size of a German shepherd dog. The cat was seen by others as it wandered east through Harford County.

A 3-foot, white puma was seen in the winter of 1992-1993 around Stewardstown, New Hampshire.

In December 1993, Wayne Perri of Hartland, Maine, was walking his dogs when he encountered a puma near Decker Pond. He took a photo of the animal, which shows it accompanied by two of his hounds.

Near Craftsbury, Vermont, in the winter of 1994-1995, game wardens found tracks, scat, and other physical evidence that produced a DNA match with a puma.

In June 1997, a small female puma was hit by a truck in western Floyd County, Kentucky. The witness said the animal was following a larger cat with another small cat. He picked up the carcass and turned it over to the Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, which kept the carcass in a freezer. It was determined to be an 8-pound puma kitten with all its claws intact and no tags or collars on it.

On July 15, 2000, on railroad tracks near Fort Kaskaskia State Historic Site, Illinois, a 110-pound, male puma carcass was discovered, killed by a train. Necropsy results showed that the animal had all its claws and had been feeding on white-tailed deer, indicating that it was wild and not an escapee.

Present status: The eastern subspecies (Puma concolor couguar) once ranged from New Brunswick south to South Carolina and west to

Illinois. Because of persistent yet unconfirmed reports, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) added the Eastern puma to the endangered species list in 1973. Puma sign found in 1981 convinced Robert Downing of the USFWS that the animal survived in Virginia and West Virginia. However, federal and state agencies have avoided expending scarce conservation resources on an animal still presumed extinct. In March 1993, based on tracks, hair, and fecal samples collected near Juniper in November 1992, the New Brunswick Department of Natural Resources acknowledged the presence of a puma population in the province.

The southern subspecies (P. c. coryi) formerly ranged from Georgia and Florida west to Arkansas and Louisiana; it is now estimated that only thirty to fifty adults exist in small pockets of southern Florida. A plan for genetic restoration of the remaining animals began in 1995 with the release of eight female Texas pumas (P. c. stanleyana) into south Florida.

In eastern and southern states, both pumas and the deer they fed on were greatly reduced in numbers in the early nineteenth century as white settlements advanced into the Appalachians. Deer did not become extensively stocked and protected again until the establishment of state and national parks from the 1930s to the 1950s. There is evidence that a few pumas survived the critical period between 1900 and 1930 and thus might be responsible for increasing populations in the East.

Many recent witnesses have reported seeing Eastern pumas at close range, but few have produced supporting evidence. The few specimens reported killed have not been preserved.

Pumas in the western United States are thriving. Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming have healthy populations, as do British Columbia and Alberta in Canada. Reports in adjacent states and provinces occur less frequently and may represent transients.

Black pumas—The leopard and jaguar are the two cats with the most frequently reported instances of melanism (black coloration). Melanism is virtually unknown in pumas, with only three questionable specimens killed in

Brazil (in 1843), Gunnison, Colorado (in 1912), and Costa Rica (in 1959) and unconfirmed rumors from Nicaragua, Panama, and Argentina. Normal puma coloration is either tawny or silver-gray, with no gradations in between. Its rain forest coloration is sometimes a dark red-brown. If a recessive gene for melanism were present in the North American puma population, it would likely have turned up more frequently in the wild and in captive breeding populations. Frederick Boyle, A Ride across a Continent: A Personal Narrative of Wanderings through Nicaragua and Costa Rica (London: R. Bentley, 1868); William Thompson, Great Cats I Have Met (Boston: Alpha, 1896); Angel Cabrera and José Yepes, Historia natural ediar (Buenos Aires: Compañía Argentina de Editores, 1940); Jim Bob Tinsley, The Puma: Legendary Lion of the Americas (El Paso: University of Texas at El Paso, 1987). Possible explanations:

(1) A black Labrador retriever may sometimes be mistaken for a melanistic cat. Other large dog breeds, seen at night from a distance, might also be taken for a large cat.

(2) A black feral Domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has been mistaken for a mystery felid when the witness has unintentionially exaggerated its size.

(3) The Bobcat (Lynx rufus) is found within the Eastern puma's range but is considerably smaller (25—30 inches in length) and has a short tail. Bobcat melanism is rare but known in Florida.

(4) A number of other animals can make a noise like a puma's scream, among them a feral domestic cat, bobcat, Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and Eastern screech-owl (Otus asio).

(5) Tracks most commonly mistaken for pumas are made by a Domestic dog (Canis familiaris), bobcat, and Black bear (Ursus americanus).

(6) Deer kills in the wild are mostly inconclusive as evidence, since both released pet pumas and wild bobcats can kill, drag, and cover adult deer in the same way that a puma does.

(7) Pumas mark their paths frequently by scraping up a patch of dirt with their hind feet and urinating or spraying on it. Other animals make similar scratch hills, among them the Wild boar (Sus scrofa), Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), bobcat, Jaguar (Panthera onca), Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), black bear, dog, Squirrel (Sciurus spp.), Skunk (Mephitis spp.), and fox.

(8) An escaped circus animal is often offered as an explanation, but few correlations between puma sightings and escape incidents have been documented.

(9) An escaped or released exotic pet, especially a melanistic Leopard (Panthera pardus), is a possibility, although how a single, large, probably declawed animal that has lost its hunting skills could persist in the wild for very long without getting caught poses a problem.

(10) Puma pelts that have been intentionally dyed black as a hoax are not unknown.

(11) The return of pumas to the East may be the result of the persistence of the original Puma concolor couguar subspecies, migration of western or Florida subspecies, or individuals or groups released into the wild at different times and places.

As early as 1959, Canadian researcher Bruce S. Wright came to believe that pumas were still present in New Brunswick and in almost every eastern state from the Canadian border to Florida, but the animals had become scarce, cautious, and primarily nocturnal. By 1972, he had documented 304 solid reports from eastern Canada and 44 scattered sightings from Maine to Alabama.

Naturalist Helen Gerson studied 318 reports from Ontario received by the provincial Ministry of Natural Resources between 1935 and 1983. More than half were logged as "probable." Only 9 percent involved black specimens. John and Linda Lutz, in Eastern Puma Network News, based in Baltimore, Maryland, recorded 615 reports in the United States from 1983 to 1989, with the greatest numbers by far in Maryland (135),

Pennsylvania (131), and West Virginia (113). Of these reports, 44 percent involved multiple witnesses, 27 percent were observations by hunters, and 37 percent involved black specimens. The Eastern Puma Research Network logged 567 sightings in 1991, 435 sightings in 1993 (over half of them in Pennsylvania), 245 sightings in 1994, 510 sightings in 1995, and 397 sightings in 1999. The percentage of melanistic individuals seems to be falling, from 31 percent in 1990 to 16 percent in 1999.

Todd Lester's Eastern Cougar Foundation, based in North Spring, West Virginia, logged 673 sightings from 1995 to 1999. The greatest number of melanistic pumas were in West Virginia (122), North Carolina (17), and Virginia (16). The Lutzes ranked the top ten states with the most number of reports as of January 2001 as follows: Tan pumas—Pennsylvania (920), New York (442), Maryland (361), West Virginia (330), Virginia (180), Michigan (158), New Jersey (128), Maine (124), Illinois (121), and Ohio (118). Black pumas—Pennsylvania (282), New York (146), Wisconsin (98), Maryland (86), West Virginia (76), New Jersey (61), Illinois (47), Michigan (46), Virginia (35), and Tennessee (30).

(12) Bruce Wright has suggested that melanism may have evolved in isolated Eastern puma populations to increase elusiveness and ensure survival.

(13) Chad Arment points out that the evidence for black pumas seems extremely sparse before the 1940s, and he suggests that prior to that time, an unknown group of sport hunters introduced a group of melanistic Leopards (Panthera pardus) from European zoos into the Appalachians or Ozarks.

(14) Loren Coleman believes that returning Eastern pumas cannot account for all American mystery felids, especially those with black coloration and/or aggressive behavior patterns. He suggests that the black cats are surviving female American lions (Panthera atrox), a Pleistocene lion that died out 9,000 years ago, while the males are reported as ManeD American Lions.

(15) Errant or escaped mustelids such as the Fisher (Martes pennanti) or Wolverine (Gulo gulo) might account for observations of smaller black felids such as the Woofin nanny. The fisher is particularly catlike, 2 feet long, dark brown to black in color, with a 15-inch, bushy tail. Its normal range is northern New England, Canada, and portions of the Rockies and Coast Ranges in the West.

(16) The Jaguarundi (Herpailurus jaguarondi) is found from south Texas to Paraguay and has been introduced in Florida. A medium-sized cat (3 feet-4 feet 6 inches long) with short legs and a long tail, the jaguarundi tends to a dark brown or black color in tropical rain forests. An escapee might be mistaken for a larger cat.

(17) Jaguars (Panthera onca) also have a melanistic morph but are no longer found north of Mexico, except possibly in Arizona. See Arizona Jaguar

Sources: "A Tiger in Kentucky," Lexington (Ky.) Gazette, July 17, 1823; Stanley P. Young and Edward A. Goldman, The Puma: Mysterious American Cat (Washington, D.C.: American Wildlife Institute, 1946); G. H. Pipes, Strange Customs of the Ozark Hillbilly (New York: Hobson, 1947); John Harden, The Devil's Tramping Ground (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1949), pp. 147-154; Vance Randolph, We Always Lie to Strangers (New York: Columbia University Press, 1951); Gerald T. Bue and Milton H. Stenlund, "Are There Mountain Lions in Minnesota?" Conservation Volunteer 15 (September 1952): 32-37; Herbert Ravenel Sass, "The Panther Prowls the East Again!" Saturday Evening Post 226 (March 13, 1954): 31, 133-136; Dunbar Robb, "Cougar in Missouri," Missouri Conservationist 16 (July 1955): 14; "Dogs Routed by 'Panther,'" Kansas City (Mo.) Times, July 23, 1957, business sec., p. 5; Bruce S. Wright, The Ghost of North America: The Story of the Eastern Panther (New

York: Vantage, 1959); Farnum Gray, "'Woofin Nanny' Has Mamas on Edge," Winston-Salem (N.C.) Journal and Sentinel, July 9, 1966, p. 1; Farnum Gray, "'Armed Men Staked Out to Await 'Woofin Nanny,'" Winston-Salem (N.C.) Journal and Sentinel, July 12, 1966, p. 1; R. E. Buehler, "Looking through the Archives: The Big Cat," Journal of the Ohio Folklore Society 1 (Winter 1966): 75-78; Loren Coleman, "Mystery Animals in Illinois," Fate 24 (March 1971): 48-54; Jerome Clark and Loren Coleman, "On the Trail of Pumas, Panthers and ULAs (Unidentified Leaping Animals)," Fate 25 (June 1972): 72-82, and (July 1972): 92-102; Bruce S. Wright, The Eastern Panther: A Question of Survival (Toronto, Canada: Clark, Irwin, 1972); Loren Coleman, "Phantom Panther on the Prowl," Fate 30 (November 1977): 62-67; Susan Power Bratton, "Is the Panther Making a Comeback?" National Parks and Conservation Magazine 52 (July 1978): 10-13; Loren Coleman, "Black 'Mountain Lions' in California?" Pursuit, no. 46 (Spring 1979): 61-62; Paul B. Thompson, "The Sampson County Mystery Animal," Pursuit, no. 56 (1981): 149-151; E. J. Kahn Jr., "Stalking the Cape Cod Cougar," Boston Magazine, July 1982; John Brinkley, "American Sues over 'Invasion,'" USA Today, August 8, 1983, p. 9A; Robert L. Downing, "The Search for Cougars in the Eastern United States," Cryptozoology 3 (1984): 31-49; Jim Bob Tinsley, The Puma: Legendary Lion of the Americas (El Paso: University of Texas at El Paso, 1987); Helen Gerson, "Cougar, Felis concolor, Sightings in Ontario," Canadian Field Naturalist 102 (1988): 419-424; "The Eastern Puma: Evidence Continues to Build," ISC Newsletter 8, no. 3 (Autumn 1989): 1-8; E. Randall Floyd, Great Southern Mysteries (Little Rock, Ark.: August House, 1989); Karl Shuker, Mystery Cats of the World (London: Robert Hale, 1989), pp. 151-166; Jay W. Tischendorf, "The Eastern Panther on Film? Results of an Investigation," Cryptozoology 10 (1990): 74-78; "Eastern Puma Officially Acknowledged in Canada," ISC Newsletter 12, no. 2 (1993-1996): 9-11; Gene Letourneau, "Sportsmen Say," Portland Maine Sunday

Telegram, February 6 and 13 and March 20, 1994; Charles R. Humphreys, Panthers of the Coastal Plain (Wilmington, N.C.: Fig Leaf Press, 1994); Mark A. Hall, "The Eastern Catamount (Felis concolor)," Wonders 3, no. 1 (March 1994): 21-29; Chad Arment, "The Eastern Cougar in Harford County, Maryland," INFO Journal, no. 71 (Autumn 1994): 21-23; Joseph A. Citro, Green Mountain Ghosts, Ghouls and Unsolved Mysteries (Montpelier: Vermont Life, 1994), pp. 88-93; Chris Bolgiano, Mountain Lion: An Unnatural History of Pumas and People (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole, 1995); Jay W. Tischendorf and Steven J. Ropski, eds., Proceedings of the Eastern Cougar Conference, 1994 (Fort Collins, Colo.: American Ecological Research Institute, 1996); John A. Lutz, All You Need to Know about the Eastern Cougar (Baltimore, Md.: Eastern Puma Research Network, 1997); Gerry R. Parker, The Eastern Panther: Mystery Cat of the Appalachians (Halifax, N.S., Canada: Nimbus, 1998); E. Randall Floyd, "Tales of 'Cat Creature' Abound in Swamps," Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle, May 17, 1998; Chad Arment, "Black Panthers in North America: Examining the Published Explanations," North American BioFortean Review 2, no. 1 (2000): 38-56, http://www. strangeark.com/nabr/NABR3.pdf; Chad Arment, "Devil Monkeys or Wampus Cats?" North American BioFortean Review 2, no. 2 (2000): 45-48, http://www.strangeark. com/nabr/NABR4.pdf; Brad LaGrange, "Black Panthers in Perry County, Indiana," North American BioFortean Review 2, no. 3 (December 2000): 4, http://www.strangeark. com/nabr/NABR5.pdf; Loren Coleman, Mysterious America, rev. ed. (New York: Paraview, 2001), pp. 105-126; Paul Eno, Footsteps in the Attic (Woonsocket, R.I.: New River Press, 2001); Todd Lester, "Search for Cougars in the East," North American BioFortean Review 3, no. 2 (October 2001): 15-17, http://www.strangeark.com/ nabr/NABR7.pdf; Kelvin McNeil, "Some Little Known Cougar Sightings in New Hampshire," North American BioFortean Review 3, no. 2 (October 2001): 20-23, http://www.strangeark. com/nabr/NABR7.pdf; John A. Lutz and Linda

A. Lutz, "Century-Old Mystery Rises from the Shadows," North American BioFortean Review 3, no. 2 (October 2001): 30-50, http://www.strangeark.com/ nabr/NABR7.pdf; Robert Prevo, "Arkansas' Black Panthers," North American BioFortean Review 3, no. 2 (October 2001): 51-53, http://www. strangeark.com/nabr/NABR7.pdf; Chad Arment, "Possible Cougar Photographed in Maryland," North American BioFortean Review 3, no. 2 (October 2001): 54-55, http:// www.strangeark.com/nabr/NABR7.pdf; Florida Panther Net, http://www.panther.state.fl.us; Eastern Cougar Foundation, http://www. geocities.com/rainforest/vines/1318/; Patrick Rusz, The Cougar in Michigan: Sightings and Related Information (Bath: Michigan Wildlife Habitat Foundation, 2001), available at http:// www.mwhf.org/pdffiles/cougar.pdf; Chester Moore Jr., "Are U.S. 'Black Panthers' Actually Jaguarundi?" The Anomalist Online, 2002, at http://www.anomalist.com/features/jag.html.

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