Squids, octopuses, cuttlefish, the fossil ammonites, and the chambered nautilus are all members of the Class Cephalopoda, marine In-verteb rates with large eyes, a head surrounded by muscular tentacles, and a chitinous beak like a parrot's. They are considered the most highly evolved invertebrates. Octopuses have eight tentacles, squids and cuttlefish have ten, and the nautilus has sixty to ninety. All move by taking in water and expelling it forcibly through a siphon; octopuses can also crawl along the ocean bottom.
The first cephalopods were the nautiloids, which appeared in the Ordovician, some 450 million years ago. The ammonites became abundant from the Devonian to the Cretaceous, 350—65 million years ago. Cuttlefish, squids, and octopuses have only vestigial internal shells or no shells at all; consequently, they have left virtually no fossils behind. Their closest fossil relatives were the belemnites, common in Meso-zoic seas, that had conical shells and eight tentacles equipped with hooks.
The largest living invertebrate is the Giant squid (Architeuthis sp.). Although the top size for this animal is a matter of some controversy (see KrAKEN), the 2.2-ton specimen that washed ashore at Thimble Tickle, Newfoundland, on November 2, 1878, measured 20 feet from beak to tail, and one of its tentacles measured 35 feet, giving it a total length of 55 feet. It also had the largest eye of any known animal, living or extinct, with a diameter of about 15.75 inches. The largest known octopus is the Giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini), which can exceed a radial spread of 20 feet.
There are ten cephalopod cryptids in this list, three squids and seven octopuses. Two of the octopuses have supposedly been found in freshwater environments, and one of the squids was reported living in a toxic oil-emulsion pit. Either habitat would be a first for any of the cephalopods, which are exclusively marine. Six in the list involve animals of considerable size.
Cuero; Freshwater Octopus; Giant British Octopus; Giant Mediterranean Octopus;
Gigantic Octopus; Gigantic Pacific Octopus; Kraken; Lusca; OilPitSquid; Sea Monk
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