Sea Monster of the coast of British Columbia, Canada.

Etymology: Name popularized if not coined October 11, 1933, by Victoria (B.C.) Daily Times edit or Ar chie H. Wills aft er r epeat ed sight ings in Cadboro Bay, British Columbia. Short form of Cadborosaurus, coined at t he same t ime.

Variant names: Amy, Cadborosaurus, Edizgi-gant eus (aft er Ediz Hook Light, Washingt on), HaieTHJK, Klamahsosaur us (on Texada Island), Penda (after Pender Island).

Scientific name: Cadborosaurus willsi, proposed by Edward L. Bousfield and Paul H. LeBlond in 1995.

Physical description: Serpentine body that forms many humps or loops. Length, 16-100 feet. Diameter, 2 feet 6 inches-8 feet. Light brown to black. Small head resembles a sheep, horse, giraffe, or camel. Eyes in the front of the head. Small ears or horns. Pointed tongue. Two rows of fishlike t eet h. Mane or fur somet imes r e-por t ed. Neck is 3-12 feet long, about as t hick as an arm. One pair of front flippers. Back sometimes appears serrated, sometimes smooth. Flat t ail is fluked or for med fr om fused back flipper s.

Behavior: Does not appear to undulate when it swims. Fast swimming speed, clocked at 40 knots. Breathes in short pants. Makes whalelike gr unt s and hisses. Feeds on her r ing, salmon, and ducks.

Distribution: British Columbia sea coast, especially around Cadboro Bay and the Strait of Georgia.

Significant sightings: A crew member of the ship Columbia under American fur trader Capt. Robert Gray was the first to report a Caddy sighting in 1791.

Osmond Fergusson wat ched a 25-foot animal with a long neck near the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, on June 26, 1897.

In September 1905 or 1906, Philip H. Welch saw a br own animal wit h a 6- t o 8-foot neck from a distance of 100 yards away in Johnst one Strait. It had two bumps on its head that were 5 inches high and rounded on top.

F. W. Kemp and his wife and son wat ched an 80-foot maned animal while they were sitting on the Chatham Island beach, British Columbia, on August 10, 1932.

On September 23, 1933, Dorothea Hooper and a neighbor observed a serpentine animal with a serrated back cavorting in Cadboro Bay about 400 yar ds dist ant. It cr eat ed a commot ion in t he wat er as it swam out t o sea.

Maj. W. H. Langley and his wife were sailing in Haro Strait on October 1, 1933, when they heard a loud grunt off Chatham Island. They saw t he back of a huge, dar k-gr een cr eat ur e wit h serrated markings on the top and sides.

Charles F. Eagles sketched a 60-foot animal t hat he saw in Oak Bay on Oct ober 14, 1933. It had crocodile-like spines on its neck.

On December 3, 1933, Just ice of the Peace G. F. Parkyn of Bedwell Harbour was one of twelve people watching from Pender Island as an animal with a large, horselike head and neck gulped down a duck that had just been shot by Cyr il Andr ews.

In 1936, E. J. Stephenson and his wife and son watched a yellow-and-bluish, 90-foot-long, 3-foot-thick animal crawling over a reef into a lagoon on Saturna Island.

A 10- to 12-foot carcass of apparently a young Caddy was r emoved fr om t he st omach of a sperm whale, photographed, and displayed for a while at Naden Harbour whaling station in 1937. The photo shows it stretched out on packing cases. It was about 10 feet long, with a camel-like head, traces of flippers, and a paddling tail. The carcass was allegedly shipped off to the Field Museum in Chicago, but t her e is no record of it s ar r ival.

A Canadian naval officer was fishing in an open boat off Esquimalt Harbour in November 1950 when a 30-foot Caddy appeared and creat ed a heavy wash. It swam with an undulating motion using large flippers on either side. It snapped its teeth together once before it dived after twenty-five seconds.

On February 12, 1953, R D. Cockburn, C. P. Crawford, and Ron Loach saw an animal with three humps off Qualicum Beach for five minutes. Two other men got into a boat and rowed within 20 feet, but it submerged and reappeared 100 yards away. Its head was dog-shaped and had two horns.

In lat e November 1959, David Miller and Alfred Webb came within 30 feet of an animal with a 10-foot neck sticking straight up out of the water off Discovery Island. It had coarse brown fur, red eyes, and small ears.

A 16-inch-long juvenile Caddy was caught in a net by William Hagelund in 1968 off De Courcy Island, but it was thrown back. It had spiny t eet h, a saw-t oot hed r idge of plat es along its backbone, and a bilobate tail. A soft, yellow fuzz cover ed it s under sides.

Mechanical engineer Jim M. Thompson was fishing off Spanish Banks, Vancouver, in January 1984 when an 18- to 22-foot serpentine animal surfaced about 100 feet away. It had a giraffelike head with small stubby horns and floppy ears.

In May 1992, music professor John Celona saw a multihumped animal about 25 feet long while sailing.

Students Damian Grant and Ryan Green were swimming across Telegraph Bay in May 1994 when t hey saw a 20-foot animal wit h two humps.

Possible explanations:

(1) The Northern sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) can appear serpentine in the water but only grows to about 10 feet 6 inches long.

(2) The Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) is found in British Columbian wat ers in t he nonbr eeding season, but it only measures up to 16 feet long and does not have an elongated neck.

(3) A surviving basilosaurid type of archaic whale, suggest ed by Roy Mackal and Karl Shuker. Some basilosaurids were serpentine, grew up t o 80 feet long, and lived in t he Late Eocene, about 42 million years ago. They had a t ail fluke, but it's unknown whether it was used primarily for propulsion or st eer ing. They are mainly known fr om t he east er n Unit ed St at es and Egypt but may have been worldwide in distribution.

(4) An evolved plesiosaur, suggested by Edward Bousfield and Paul LeBlond. This group of long-necked marine reptiles swam wit h paddlelike limbs and had a body length that varied from 6 to 46 feet. Plesiosaur fossils are found continuously from the Middle Triassic, 238 million years ago, to the Late Cretaceous, 65 million years ago.

(5) A decaying Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) might account for the 1937 Naden Harbour carcass. These sharks take on a remarkably plesiosaur-like appearance due to the differential decomposition rates of t heir gill slit s and lower t ail fluke. A 30-foot carcass found in November 1934 by Hugo Sandstrom on Henry Island t urned out to be a Basking shark.

(6) Some kind of decapod (crayfish or lobst er) has been suggest ed by Aaron Bauer and Ant hony Russell as an explanat ion for Hagelund's juvenile Caddy capture in 1968. Sources: "Yachtsmen Tell of Huge Sea

Serpent off Victoria," Victoria (B.C.) Daily Times, October 5, 1933, p. 1; "The Loch Ness Monster Paralleled in Canada," Illustrated London News 184 (January 6, 1934): 8; "A Canadian 'Monster,'" Illustrated London News 185 (December 15, 1934): 1011; Ray Gardner, "Caddy, King of the Coast," Maclean's Magazine 63 (June 15, 1950): 24, 42-43; D. Mattison, "An 1897 Sea Serpent Sighting in the Queen Charlotte Islands," B.C. Historical News 17, no. 2 (1964): 15; Paul H. LeBlond and John Siber t, Observations of Large

Unidentified Marine Animals in British Columbia and Adjacent Waters (Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia, Inst it ut e of Oceanography, June 1973); William A. Hagelund, Whalers No More: A History of Whaling on the West Coast (Madeira Park, B.C., Canada: Harbour, 1987); Frederic C. Howay, ed., Voyages of the "Columbia" to the Northwest Coast, 1787-1790 and 1790-1793 (Portland: Oregon Historical Society, 1990), p. 249; Penny Park, "Beast from the Deep Puzzles Zoologists," New Scientist 137 (January 23, 1993): 16; Jessica Maxwell, "Seeing Serpents," Pacific Northwest27 (April 1993): 30-34; Mike Dash, "The Dragons of Vancouver," Fortean Times, no. 70 (August-Sept ember 1993): 46-48; Edward L. Bousfield and Paul H. LeBlond, "An Account of Cadborosaurus willsi, New Genus, New Species, a Large Aquatic Reptile from the Pacific Coast of North America," Amphipacifica 1, suppl. 1 (1995): 3-25; Paul H. LeBlond and Edward L. Bousfield, Cadborosaurus: Survivor from the Deep (Victoria, B.C., Canada: Horsdal and Schubart, 1995); Aaron M. Bauer and Anthony P. Russell, "A Living Plesiosaur? A Critical Assessment of the Description of Cadborosaurus willsi," Cryptozoology 12 (1996): 1-18; Darren Naish, "Another Caddy Carcass?" Cryptozoology Review 2, no. 1 (Summer 1997): 26-29; Paul H. LeBlond, "Caddy: An Updat e," Crypto Dracontology Special, no. 1 (November 2001): 55-59.

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