101 Toxic Food Ingredients

101 Toxic Food Ingredients

Using this simple 4-step system is the easiest, fastest, and most powerful way to distinguish which food ingredients are toxic to your overall health and which are healthy to consume. There are hundreds, even thousands, of such toxic ingredients that food manufactures use, and it could take you months or maybe even years to dissect all of that information. This program is designed to restore your health and eliminate any Toxic ingredients that may be slowly causing your health to deteriorate. However, as a side effect, you may lose weight due to the change in your diet. If you exercise and lift weights, you may notice an increase in muscle and energy as well. You will immediately notice results within the first week of applying the concepts in this system. All you have to do is follow the proven plan I give you and you will instantly have more energy and vitality. The key is to use the alternative foods in your diet consistently to see the results. Read more here...

101 Toxic Food Ingredients Summary

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Safety Of Food Colorants

Color additives were one of the first human-made products regulated by law (Table 4.3).24 Pigmentation of dairy products was the first process subject to governmental regulation. In fact, a few years before 1900 there was no colorant regulation in the United States, although colorants were commonly used in different products. By 1904, the U.S. Congress had approved the creation of special legislation for additives. B.C. Hesse, a German scientist, was commissioned by the USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) to conduct toxicological studies on colorants, and it was observed that 26 of the evaluated pigments showed contradictory results, 8 were unsafe, and 16 were more or less harmless. Furthermore, these last 16 colorants were evaluated in short-range toxicological studies in dogs, rabbits, and humans. Legislation was approved and applied in 1906, and only seven certifiable colorants were listed as food additives in the United States (Table 4.2). With the 1906 Act, colorant...

C T De Rosa PhD H Hansen S Wilbur H R Pohl H A ElMasri M M Mumtaz

We live in a chemical world, and exposure to xenobiotics is a fact of life. Humans are exposed daily to a variety of chemicals including but not limited to large categories of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, household products, and food additives. Chemical exposures can be intentional or unintentional, to a single chemical or to a mixture of chemicals. Exposures to environmental chemicals occur in populations living in inner cities near chemical manufacturing plants (1, 2) hazardous waste sites, and in the near field runoffs from fields and fertilizers (3). An overturned cargo train or transportation truck can spill chemicals in a pristine environment and become a source of pollution, contamination, and exposure, and eventually lead to an emergency response event. Exposures to environmental chemicals can affect humans, animals, and plants. Thus people of various interests and backgrounds are concerned about environmental exposures. Everyone carries a body burden of chemicals that range...

Dietary Sources Of Vitamin D

Daily values are reference numbers developed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to help consumers determine specific nutrient content of food. The average DV for vitamin D ranges between 200 and 600 IU depending on age and physical activity, with the biological activity of 1 g of vitamin D being 40 IU. The DV of the food sources listed in Table 5.1 is based on a 2000-calorie diet. The DV denotes what is provided by one serving and is usually listed on the nutrition facts panel of food labels.

Soya Protein Flavonoids And Phytooestrogens

The efficacy of soya and soya derivatives in lowering total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol was recently supported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approving a health claim about the role of soya protein in reducing the risk of CHD. In 1999 the FDA finalised a rule that authorises the use on food labels and in food packages under FDA jurisdiction of the health claims concerning the association between soya protein and reduced risk of CHD '25g of soya protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol may reduce the risk of heart disease' (37). Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations can be lowered by about 13 , plasma TG by 10 and HDL-cholesterol goes up by about 2 (38), and these beneficial effects are also seen in people with Type 2 diabetes (39). It is unclear if the benefits come from the main phyto-oestrogens found in soya, diadzein and genistein or from the soy protein itself. Epidemiological evidence suggests high intakes of...

Evidence For Sucrose Restriction In Diabetic Diets

Long-term use of artificial sweeteners is particularly useful for weight loss -reducing sugar intake saves fewer calories than reducing dietary fat by the same amount (74). Some large-scale dietary surveys have shown that people who consume higher amounts of sugar and less fat tend to have lower body weights (75-77). Refined sucrose consumption correlates inversely with fat intake in both non-diabetic and diabetic populations. In addition, research shows that a moderate-high intake of sugar is not associated with a reduced intake of vitamins and minerals (78). One of the reasons for this is that sucrose increases the palatability and intake of nutritious foods such as cereals and dairy products. Sucrose also satisfies an instinctual desire for sweetness and has many functional roles in foods that extend beyond its sweetening power, including preservative, textural and flavour-modifying qualities.

Regulatory Considerations

In the food industry, ozone was first permitted by the FDA to disinfect bottled water 137 . In 1997 ozone was affirmed GRAS status as a disinfectant and or sanitizer for broad-based food usage by an expert panel sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the U.S. 57 . In 2001 the FDA approved the use of ozone as a direct food additive for the treatment, storage, and processing of foods in gaseous and aqueous phases. Acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide have been considered as GRAS food additives by the FDA however, currently there are no regulations in the U.S. on the usage of their vaporous forms or of other natural plant volatiles (AITC, MJ, trans-anethole, carvacrol, cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol, linalool, and thymol) as antimicrobial agents for preservation or sanitation of fruits and vegetables. Regulatory approval of the usage of these antimicrobials for produce will depend upon many different factors. Certainly, treatment effectiveness and efficacy data, worker...

Sources of further information and advice

Studies of the role of calcium in weight loss or the prevention of overweight and obesity are a rather recent, still developing field of research. It is absolutely necessary to be prepared to question once again findings that in the past were thought to have been verified. Therefore, researchers who are interested in this field and who want to extend their knowledge, need to resort to reviewing articles published in scientific journals and the original literature cited in these articles, as well as any other original contributions, which can, for example, be obtained from scientific data banks such as Medline Monographs on this topic in books are hardly available. Furthermore, the National Dairy Council in the United States has a website that provides references exclusively for studies showing a positive impact of calcium and dairy products in weight management. The site contains short descriptions of the respective studies, links to the original abstracts and another link to an issue...

Marjoram And Oregano Are Used In Many Foods

Foodstuff industry use oregano oil and oregano resin both in foods and in beverages and also in cosmetics. Oregano oil is used in alcoholic beverages, baked goods, meats and meat products, condiments and relishes, milk products, processed vegetables, snack foods, and fats and oils. Marjoram, too, is used in many foods and beverages in food industry meat sauces, canned foods, vinegar, vermouths and bitters are often seasoned with marjoram.

D Other Biological Activities

Turmeric and curcumin are beneficial as food additives for human health. These products have been shown to reverse the aflatoxin-induced liver damage produced by feeding AFB1 (5 g day for 14 days). In addition, aqueous extract of turmeric (10 mg ml) inhibits the toxin production by 99 . The concentration of the extracts needed for 50 inhibition of toxin production is approximately 2.5 mg ml. It is known that AFB1 produced by Aspergillus parasiticus induces extensive changes in liver fatty acid changes, granular degeneration, necrosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. In animals treated with AFB1, the presence of turmeric has almost completely reversed necrosis and there are only moderate fatty acid changes. Turmeric inhibits the production of toxins in foods, without inhibiting the growth of mycelium.118

Stimulating Additions

Two biochemists in the Netherlands, W. Engels and S. Visser at Wageningen University, noticed that the flavors typical of Gouda were obtained when methionine was added to lactic bacteria (without milk) and went on to identify two enzymes that seemed to be responsible for the phenomenon. Yvon and her colleagues, for their part, had observed in vitro that lactic bacteria degrade certain amino acids to form aromatic compounds such as aldehydes and car-boxylic acids. The first step in this transformation, known as transamination, involves a reaction between an amino acid and a molecule named ketogluta-rate, which produces a keto acid in addition to glutamate (a molecule that, as we have seen, is used as a flavor enhancer in Asian cuisine and in many commercial products because it communicates the taste that we know today as umami). During transamination, an amine group (-nh2) is converted from an amino acid to a keto acid, which is then chemically modified and transformed into aromatic...

Principles of Food Microbiology

Microorganisms on foods are not always undesirable. Sometimes, their growth results in a more pleasant taste or texture. Foods that have been intentionally altered by carefully controlling the activity of bacteria, yeasts, or molds are called fermented (figure 32.1). For example, food manufacturers purposely encourage some microorganisms to flourish in milk in order to produce foods such as sour cream and blue cheese. Alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, and many Asian food condiments, such as soy sauce and miso, also rely on microbial metabolism for their production. Strictly speaking, the term fermentation is used to describe only those metabolic activities that utilize pyruvate or another organic compound as an electron acceptor, with the result that alcohols and acids are produced. Food scientists, however, use the term more generally, to encompass any desirable change that a microorganism imparts to food. fermentation, pp. 137,151

Cited Publications

Food and Drug Administration (USFDA), Toxicological Principles for the Safety Assessment of Direct Food Additives and Color Additives used in Food. Draft, U.S.F.D.A., Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Washington, DC, 1993. 70 A. G. Renwick, Data derived safety factors for the evaluation of food additives and environmental contaminants. FoodAddit. Contam. 10(3), 275-305 (1993).

The Food Guide Pyramid

You must have noticed the food guide pyramid on food labels. The USDA and the DHHS designed this pyramid to be a flexible dietary guide for Americans. Each compartment contains a different food group and the recommended number of servings that should be consumed daily. The primary energy-providing nutrient (Chapter 2) found in each food group is written in parenthesis. See Figure 3-1. Although this Food Guide Pyramid is found on most food labels, many people are unsure how to use its information. The most common questions are about serving sizes and how many servings should be eaten. Often people overestimate the size of a serving, thereby eating more kcals than they anticipated. Table 3-1 gives an estimate of the amount of food per serving for each food group and Table 3-2 lists the number of servings required from each food group to meet the various total daily kcals shown in the left column. Look up the number of servings you need from each of the food groups to meet your Estimated...

Sources and properties of nondigestible oligosaccharides

Several NDOs are considered DFs, itself a broad category. As illustrated in Table 7.1, NDOs may occur naturally in many plants - mainly vegetables, whole grains and fruits (Meyer 2004). Another natural source of NDOs is milk (cow milk galacto-oligosaccharides and human milk oligosaccharides). Moreover, several NDOs - often added in food for their technological properties - may be synthesised from simple or complex carbohydrates. NDOs present in the diet differ from one another in their chemical structure, in other words the number (DP) or the type of hexose moeties (glucosyl-, fructosyl-, galactosyl-, xylosyl-), the position of links between the hexose moeties and their conformation (a- versus P-) (Delzenne 2003). All these characteristics have consequences on the physical properties of NDOs - and therefore on their putative usefulness as food ingredients and their effects and metabolism in the gastro-intestinal tract. Owing to interest in their nutritional properties, biotechnology...

Exponential Phase Log Phase

Ably precise in their ability to regulate the synthesis of these compounds, ensuring that each is made in the appropriate relative amount for efficient assembly into macromolecules. Compounds synthesized during this period of active multiplication are called primary metabolites. A metabolite is any product of a chemical reaction in a cell and includes compounds required for growth, as well as waste materials. Some primary metabolites are commercially valuable as flavoring agents and food supplements. Understandably, industries that harvest these compounds are working to develop methods to manipulate bacteria to overproduce certain primary metabolites. regulation of gene expression, p. 183 Cells' activities shift as they enter a stage called late log phase, which marks the transition to stationary phase. This change occurs in response to multiple factors that are inevitable in a closed system, such as depletion of nutrients and buildup of waste products. If the cells are able to form...

Alternative sweeteners nonnutritive sweeteners

The hedonic value of sugars due to their sweetness can be provided in foods and beverages by artificial sweeteners (non-caloric sweeteners) or polyols (low-caloric sweeteners), alternatively called sugar substitutes, sugar replac-ers or alternative sweeteners. High-intensity sweeteners provide sweeteness with negligible calories, although the sensation of their sweetness is often different from that of sugar. Saccharine, the oldest artificial sweetener is 300 times as sweet as sucrose. Currently, five of the high-intensity sweeteners have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and include acesulfame-K, aspartame, sucralose, saccharin and neotame which are 200, 180, 600, 300 and 8000 times sweetener than sugar, respectively (FDA, 2006). Two other artificial sweeteners, alitame and cyclamate (2000 and 30 times sweeter than sugar, respectively), have been used in foods in Europe but not in the United States (CCC, 2006). Another group of sweeteners provides sweetness...

Gluconate Dehydrogenase Membrane Bound

All GADHs are highly specific for D-gluconate oxidation with Km values of 0.3-0.8 mmol L-1 and show optimum pH at 4.0-5.0, when assayed with potassium ferricyanide. The following compounds are not oxidized by GADH aldohexoses, aldopentoses, 2-keto-D-gluconate, 5-keto-D-gluconate, D-galactonate, D-man-nonate, 6-phospho-D-gluconate, L-idonate, D-arabonate, and D-xylonate. Since the enzyme activity of GADH is not affected at all by the presence of high concentrations of the above compounds, GADH is a favorable enzyme for D-gluconate measurement 94 . D-Gluconate is well known as one of the natural ingredients of brewing products and is widespread in other materials as food additives. In spite of the wide distribution and usefulness of D-gluconate, an accurate method for its quantitative measurement had not been developed until GADH was proposed for the purpose. A well-known coupling enzymatic D-gluconate determination developed and used so far contains D-gluconate kinase and...

Organic Acids And Destruction Of Pathogens

Organic acid preservatives have widespread application for preventing food spoilage and contribute to the manufacture of safe food products 87-89 . The survival or death of pathogenic bacteria in acid and acidified foods has been investigated in a variety of products, including apple cider 68,90-93 , mayonnaise, dressings and condiments 76,84,94,95 , and fermented meats 96-98 . The mechanism of action of organic acids is commonly attributed to acidification of the cytoplasm of target cells, but also to intracellular accumulation of anions 99 . The protonated form of weak acid preservatives may diffuse across microbial cell membranes and then dissociate in the cell cytoplasm, releasing protons and anions because the intracellular pH must be maintained at a higher value than the external environment. Internal acid anion concentrations may correlate with the cessation of growth. Goncalves et al. 100 found that the specific growth rate of L. rhamnosus approached zero at approximately 4...

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Carole A Kimmel PhD Judy Buelke Sam

Standard testing procedures have been used to identify reproductive toxicity since the mid-1950s. However, the first testing guidelines in the United States were not written until 1966 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testing the developmental effects (with particular emphasis on teratogenicity) of potential new pharmaceutical agents (78). In 1982, the FDA published testing guidelines (Redbook I) for food additives (79). The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) issued international testing guidelines in the early 1980s for reproductive and developmental toxicity of industrial chemicals (80, 81). In 1982, EPA published its first guidelines

Vitamins

Vitamin C has shown protective effects against heavy metal exposure, pesticides, and food additives such as nitrates which have been associated with cancer. The vitamin is an antioxidant, protects LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage, supports the immune system, and helps prevent cancer. Recent studies have shown vitamin C affects nitric oxide activity, which is important in the dilation of blood vessels beneficial in preventing artery spasms leading to heart attacks and in lowering blood pressure.2

Inorganic

Today, some inorganic compounds are still used as colorants in foods (e.g., titanium dioxide, carbon black), while others are mainly used because of their other properties, although they also contribute to color. For example, calcium carbonate is added as an anticaking agent, acidity regulator, emulsifier, and stabilizer but it also contributes to color. Magnesium chloride and magnesium hydroxide are also food additives that contribute to food color.2,3

Stevia

The FDA prohibits the labeling of stevia as a sweetener or flavor enhancer, but it does allow it to be labeled as a nutritional supplement. Canada, interestingly enough, takes the opposite approach, allowing stevia to be labeled as a sweetener but not as a nutritional supplement.

Sugars

The artificial-sweeteners beverages contained 54 aspartame, 22 ace-sulfame K, 23 cyclamate and 1 saccharine. On average, subjects received 815 and 240 kcal day from supplemented-sucrose and artificially sweetened diets, respectively. After 10 weeks, body weight gain was greater after the sucrose beverage by 1.6 kg (about 50 of that expected), whereas, the other group lost 1.0 kg. These results indicate that artificial sweeteners have the potential to reduce energy intake and promote weight loss compared with sugars (Raben et al., 2002). Nevertheless, the calories from the sucrose drinks were also compensated for at subsequent test meals by 56 . Based on the solutions' extra calories, if subjects had not compensated for the solution's calories, 7.4 and 2.2 kg weight gain would have been expected after the sucrose and artificially sweetened diets, respectively (Raben et al., 2002). In summary, several studies suggest that alternative sweeteners reduce cumulative energy intake in...

Functions

Capsanthin and canthaxanthin have shown better antioxidant activity than lutein and P-carotene, respectively. It appears that activity depends on the number of double bonds, keto groups, and cyclopentane rings that are on the carotenoid structure carotenoids have been proposed as food additives to prevent degradation.81 The above activity contrasts to the report of Miller et al.,82 where the order of decreasing activities are lycopene > P-cryptoxanthin > lutein zeaxanthin > a-carotene > echineone > canthaxanthin astaxanthin 82 a similar order of antioxidant activity

Regulatory Aspects

Based on the results of reproductive toxicity and long-term toxicity studies involving animals, the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) established a provisional maximum daily intake for patulin of 0.4 mg kg body weight 55 . At least ten countries have established action levels of 50 mg l for patulin in apple juice, and several have established lower limits (25 to 35 mg l) 3,56 . The FDA has established a 50 mg l action level for patulin in single strength and reconstituted apple juice 19 .

Acidified Vegetables

For nonfermented, acidified vegetable products, acetic acid is commonly used as an acidulant. At a concentration of 3.6 or greater, acetic acid-acidified foods can be preserved without the addition of other antimicrobial agents or use of heat treatments 62,63 . For pickled pepper products, acidification with 2 acetic acid to pH values around 3.2 was found to prevent microbial growth for 6 months or more 64 . In general, preservation by organic acids alone results in products that can only be consumed in small amounts, as condiments, or as ingredients in other foods. Many acidified vegetable products contain between 0.5 and 2 acetic acid and are pasteurized to prevent spoilage, as well as to ensure safety. For nonfermented pickled vegetables, the combination of heat treatments, acid, and sugar concentration (for sweet pickles) serves to prevent microbial growth. Fresh-pack cucumber pickle products typically contain between 0.5 and 1 acetic acid. A recommended pasteurization procedure...

Future trends

Currently, several different food ingredients are being screened that inhibit DNL, or more precisely FAS, such as protein concentrates from Amaranthus cruentus seeds (Escudero et al. 2006) and whey protein (Morifuji et al. 2005). However, only animal studies are available so far, and whether these substances are useful supplements for humans is not clear yet. In general, it has to be considered that inhibition of FAS entails an increase in cytosolic malonyl-CoA levels, causing inhibition of CPT 1 and consequently of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Short-term inhibition of fatty acid oxidation improves hyperglycemia (Deems et al. 1998), but long-term inhibition causes accumulation of TAG in liver and muscle and reduces insulin sensitivity (Dobbins et al. 2001). In summary, all substances discussed in this review have been shown to suppress DNL, but their efficacy to cause weight loss is less clear and also the safety of long-term therapeutic use of some of these substances appears...

Mouthwash

Chlorine dioxide is an active ingredient common to many OTC mouthwash products. It both reduces anaerobic bacteria and neutralizes volatile sulfur compounds. Chlorine dioxide come in regular and stable forms. Most manufacturers use stabilized chlorine dioxide for its superior staying power within a solution. When adding chlorine dioxide to a mouthwash solution, formulators need to be careful not to mix the ingredient with a flavoring agent like peppermint or spearmint. This is because chlorine dioxide reacts with organic compounds, including flavoring agents, which means that the additive will react with flavoring agents, if present, instead of fighting halitosis.

Nutrients

Liquid alone leaves the stomach rather quickly unless it is a thick mixture or puree. Fruits are next, then vegetables, unless eaten with fat or sauces, followed by starches, and then starches mixed with legumes or meats because of the added protein content. Fats take the longest and slow emptying of the stomach if combined with any other food. Stimulants such as coffee, tea, and strong spices can hasten emptying time of the stomach and may also affect digestion by irritating the stomach walls. Certain food additives and excess salt may have the same effect.

Asthma

Treatment involves managing acute attacks and long-term prevention and control. In acute attacks, the herbs ephedra and lobelia have been used. Caffeine can help prevent asthmatic attacks up to three cups of coffee a day have a bron-chodilating effect relaxing the bronchial muscles. Finding and eliminating allergens is important. Some allergic reactions may not occur for a day or more after exposure to an allergen. Milk, besides being a possible allergen, contains a protein that causes an increase in mucus secretion. In asthmatics, airways in the lungs become clogged with mucus and other secretions. Other possible allergens are food additives, eggs, colas, nuts, chocolate, and MSG. Meat and dairy products contain fats that are inflammatory. Regular exercise expands lung capacity and strengthens the heart. Ionized air can help counteract allergenic reac

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