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Synthesis of Sucrose Incorporating Fixed CO2 Is Completed in the Cytosol

After its formation in the chloroplast stroma, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is transported to the cytosol in exchange for phosphate. The final steps of sucrose synthesis occur in the cytosol of leaf cells. In these reactions, one molecule of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is isomerized to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. This compound condenses with a second molecule of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to form fructose 1,6-bis-phosphate, which is the reverse of the aldolase reaction in glycolysis (see Figure 8-4, step 4). Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate is converted primarily to sucrose by the reactions shown in the bottom portion of Figure 8-42. The transport protein in the chloroplast membrane that brings fixed CO2 (as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate) into the cytosol when the cell is exporting sucrose vigorously is a strict antiporter No fixed CO2 leaves the chloroplast unless phosphate is fed into it. The phosphate is generated in the cy-tosol, primarily during the formation of sucrose, from phos-phorylated...

Sucrose Is Transported from Leaves Through the Phloem to All Plant Tissues

Of the two carbohydrate products of photosynthesis, starch remains in the mesophyll cells of C3 plants and the bundle sheaf cells in C4 plants. In these cells, starch is subjected to glycolysis, mainly in the dark, forming ATP, NADH, and small molecules that are used as building blocks for the synthesis of amino acids, lipids, and other cellular constituents. Sucrose, in contrast, is exported from the photosynthetic cells and transported throughout the plant. The vascular system used by higher plants to transport water, ions, sucrose, and other water-soluble substances has two components the xylem and the phloem, which generally are grouped together in the vascular bundle (see Figure 8-44). As illustrated in Figure 8-45a, the xylem conducts salts and water from the roots through the stems to the leaves. Water transported upward through the xylem is lost from the plant by evaporation, primarily from the leaves. In young plants the xylem is built of cells interconnected by...

Evidence For Sucrose Restriction In Diabetic Diets

Many randomised, controlled trials have shown that the isocaloric substitution of moderate amounts of refined sucrose for starch in diabetic diets has no adverse effects on blood glucose or lipid levels in people with diabetes (69-71). In fact, several studies show improved glycaemic control, especially in children with Type 1 diabetes (72). This makes sense when we consider that most foods containing sugar have a GI less than 60, while that of most modern starchy foods is over 70 (37,73). Many diabetes associations now officially recognise that sucrose restriction is not necessary in diabetic diets, although some put an upper limit of 30 g per day (the average intake in the non-diabetic population is about 60 g per day). Unfortunately, the dietary dogma of sucrose avoidance in diabetic diets is so well entrenched in the mind of the public and most health professionals that little change has occurred in practice. Intense sweeteners and low-joule soft drinks are almost universally...


Browning of dry proteins (top) and release of monosaccharides by trehalose and sucrose during storage. Adapted from reference 78. Buitink has published an elegant series of studies of the properties of glasses in vivo in anhydrobiotic plants (see refs. 79,80), along with a superb review of the work (see ref. 81). Briefly, Koster found that mixtures of sugars similar to those found in desiccation tolerant (corn) embryonic axes (85 (w w) sucrose, 15 (w w) raffinose) formed glasses at temperatures above 0 C, while sugar mixtures similar to those found in desiccation-sensitive axes (75 (w w) glucose, 25 (w w) sucrose) formed glasses only at subzero temperatures. These and similar data suggested that sugar mixtures form glasses in plant anhydrobiotes, but subsequent studies indicated that the intracellular glasses are not composed of sugars alone. The state diagram for intact pollen of cat tail at first glance seems to agree reasonably well with that for sucrose (the major sugar...

Cells Build and Degrade Numerous Molecules and Structures

Of this synthetic work is powered by chemical energy extracted primarily from sugars and fats or sunlight, in the case of plant cells, and stored primarily in ATP, the universal currency of chemical energy (Figure 1-14). In animal and plant cells, most ATP is produced by large molecular machines located in two organelles, mitochondria and chloro-plasts. Similar machines for generating ATP are located in the plasma membrane of bacterial cells. Both mitochondria and chloroplasts are thought to have originated as bacteria that took up residence inside eukaryotic cells and then became welcome collaborators (Chapter 8). Directly or indirectly, all of our food is created by plant cells using sunlight to build complex macromolecules during photosynthesis. Even underground oil supplies are derived from the decay of plant material.

Oligodendrocyte Oligodendrocyte

Since myelinoid bodies resemble degenerating myelin fragments formed during wallerian degeneration (Fig. 18E) (Hildebrand and Aldskogius, 1976 Hildebrand, 1977), and since myelinoid bodies inside astrocytes and within microglia are surrounded by acid phosphatase activity (Fig. 18H) (Hildebrand and Skoglund, 1971 Hildebrand, 1982), these bodies seem to reflect the catabolic side of myelin turnover. This view has gained support from biochemical studies. Ultracentrifugation of a rabbit CNS homogenate in a 0.32 0.85 M sucrose gradient gives a myelin fraction at the interface, and a small floating fraction (FF) on top of the light sucrose. The FF is highly enriched in Marchi-negative and Marchi-positive myelinoid bodies. Similar fractions from pathological CNS tissue have been interpreted as partially degraded myelin (Persson and Corneliuson, 1989 Persson, 1991). The protein composition of the FF is myelin-like, except for partly degraded myelin proteins and some nonmyelin proteins...

Large Carbon Molecules

Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction called a condensation reaction. Each time a monomer is added to a polymer, a water molecule is released. In the condensation reaction shown in Figure 3-4, two sugar molecules, glucose and fructose, combine to form the sugar sucrose, which is common table sugar. The two sugar monomers become linked by a C O C bridge. In the formation of that bridge, the glucose molecule releases a hydrogen ion, H+, and the fructose molecule releases a hydroxide ion, OH . The OH and H+ ions that are released then combine to produce a water molecule, H2O. In addition to building polymers through condensation reactions, living organisms also have to break them down. The breakdown of some complex molecules, such as polymers, occurs through a process known as hydrolysis (hie-DRAHL-i-sis). In a hydrolysis reaction, water is used to break down a polymer. The water molecule breaks the bond linking each monomer. Hydrolysis is the reverse of a...

Structure and function

Carbohydrates are defined as compounds that are composed of simple sugars (monosaccharides). They were initially named this because they contain both carbon (carbo) and H2O (water), as shown in Figure 2.1. Until recently, most medical textbooks focused primarily on the nutrient energy roles played by three simple sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose), three disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, and maltose), as well as the fiber energy roles of complex carbohydrates (cellulose, glycogen, and starch). Over 200 simple carbohydrates are now known to be produced by plants. Eight of these carbohydrates (galactose, glucose, mannose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, fructose 6, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine, and xylose) are now recognized as being essential for health, and new roles for carbohydrates are constantly being discovered (1).

Nonnutritive Sweeteners

Intense or non-nutritive sweeteners are sugar-free and calorie-free. Permitted sweeteners in the UK and Europe include aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame potassium, cyclamate, sucralose and alitame. These substances are very often used in combination as table-top sweeteners or in food products in order to produce a better flavour synergy or heat stability. There has been ongoing public debate about the safety of these substances, but there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that particular health problems are implicated by their use. In the UK the government Food Standards Agency (FSA) (formerly the

Cells Can Transform One Type of Energy into Another

According to the first law of thermodynamics, energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another. (In nuclear reactions mass is converted to energy, but this is irrelevant to biological systems.) In photosynthesis, for example, the radiant energy of light is transformed into the chemical potential energy of the covalent bonds between the atoms in a sucrose or starch molecule. In muscles and nerves, chemical potential energy stored in co-valent bonds is transformed, respectively, into the kinetic energy of muscle contraction and the electric energy of nerve transmission. In all cells, potential energy, released by breaking certain chemical bonds, is used to generate potential energy in the form of concentration and electric potential gradients. Similarly, energy stored in chemical concentration gradients or electric potential gradients is used to synthesize

The Bio Extraction Industry in Jamaica Potential and Challenges

Some of our most successfully developed products from sugar cane are our rums and rum liqueurs. The value addition and consequent economic benefits of the rum industry to Jamaica is a good example of the comparison of a successfully developed by-product, with considerable market positioning and segmentation, and sugar itself, a commodity product. Apart from sugar and rum, molasses, alcohol and vinegar are produced from sugar cane. The development of other by-products and use of the waste products in the processing of sugar canes is an area which deserves attention. In addition, there are many inefficiencies in the processing of sugar which reduce profitability. Table 1 gives data on the output of the sugar industry in the years 19992001.

Anthocyanidins and deoxyanthocyandins

Anthocyanins are water-soluble glycosides of anthocyanidins. The most common glycoside is the 3-glycoside. If a second sugar is present, it is almost always at the 5-hydroxyl position, and almost always a glucose residue. Such compounds are called 3,5-dimonosides. In addition, there are a few rare 3,7-substitutions. While glucose is the most common sugar, substitutions of other sugars, such as arabinose, are sometimes observed. Anthocyanins can also be acylated. In this case an organic acid - typically p-coumaric acid (1.11), caffeic acid (1.12), or ferulic acid (1.13) - is esterified to the sugar. An example is petanin -5-O-P-glucopyranoside 1.56), a compound found in Solanaceae.

Altering the Activity of Cell Cycle Regulatory Proteins

The electroporation medium typically contains a very low amount of electrolyte the main component is a sugar such as sucrose or mannitol. The Zimmermann fusion medium (0.28 M sucrose, 0.5 mM Mg(CH3CO2)2, 0.1 mM Ca(CH3CO2)2, 1 mM K2HPO4, 0.1 mM gluthatione, and 0.01 mg mL bovine serum albumin 6 ) is probably the most established medium used for electroporation after NT. We found that a medium consisting of 0.3 M mannitol, 0.1 mM CaCl2, 0.1 mM MgSO4, 0.5 mM HEPES, and 0.01 mg mL bovine serum albumin also works very sufficiently, at least for porcine oocytes (61).

Facilitated Diffusion

The transport of glucose illustrates two important properties of facilitated diffusion. First, facilitated diffusion can help substances move either into or out of a cell, depending on the concentration gradient. Thus, when the level of glucose is higher inside a cell than it is outside the cell, facilitated diffusion speeds the diffusion of glucose out of the cell. Second, the carrier proteins involved in facilitated diffusion are each specific for one type of molecule. For example, the carrier protein that helps with the diffusion of glucose and other simple sugars does not assist with the diffusion of amino acids.

Protein with Fat Carbohydrate with

Simple sugars, as contrasted with the more complex carbohydrates, should not be combined with anything. Fruit must be a separate snack, and if you can't resist an occasional refined-sugar dessert, eat it on an empty stomach. This way only you suffer the ill effects of the refined sugar itself. When refined sugar is eaten with other foods, both the other foods and the sugar will be poorly digested. The end result is the formation of toxins and the increased absorption of caloric content, which help neither your health nor your weight.

Clinical Effects of Low Glycemic Index Approaches

Drug therapies which reduce the rate of glucose absorption have also been shown to be effective in the control of diabetes and its complications. a-Glucosidase inhibitors such as acarbose, which reduce the rate of absorption of starch, sucrose, and to a lesser extent maltose, have been shown in large, multicenter trials to result in a significant reduction in HbA1c in type-2

Techniques to Monitor Cell Viability and Tissue Integrity

High trans-epithelial endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) established by tight junctions between the cells (Santaguida et al., 2006). The TEER has to be measured to confirm the validity of the barrier and to detect changes induced by infection with pathogens (Jong et al., 2001). The resistance values can be determined by electronic devices in real time and are expressed in ohm per square centimeter of the layer surface (Grainger et al., 2006 Neuhaus et al., 2006b). Additionally, the tightness of the layer can also be addressed by determining the permeability of indicative molecules as 3H-inulin, 3H-sucrose, Evans blue, or fluorochrome-conjugated dextrans (Jong et al., 2001 Neuhaus et al., 2006a Raimondi et al., 2006).

Advanced Concepts

Ficoll is a highly branched sucrose polymer that does not penetrate biological membranes. Upon centrifuga-tion, the mononuclear WBCs (the desired cells for isolation of nucleic acid) settle into a layer in the Ficoll gradient that is below the less dense plasma components and above the polymorphonuclear cells and red blood cells (RBCs). The layer containing the mononuclear cells is removed from the tube and washed by at least two rounds of resuspension and centrifugation in saline before proceeding with the nucleic acid isolation procedure.

The strategy of digestion 311 Carbohydrate

Dietary carbohydrate may take a number of forms. In most real meals (as opposed to the pure glucose loads studied in many experimental situations) there is a mixture of simple sugars, oligosaccharides and complex carbohydrates. Of the complex carbohydrates, some will be readily digestible starch, composed of the straight-chain amylose and the branching amylopectin, together with very small amounts of glycogen in animal tissues. Amylose consists of long chains of glucosyl units joined by a-1,4 links amylopectin consists of chains of a-1,4-linked glucosyl units, with a-1,6-linked branches very like glycogen (see Fig. 1.8). There are other types of starch which are resistant to digestion in the small intestine, but fully digested in the large intestine they are referred to as

Nicotinestimulated Dopamine Release From Mesolimbic Neurons

Using the technique of in vitro superfusion, a comparison can be made of the activity and concentration-effect relationship of nicotine-evoked release in several brain areas. Male Sprague Dawley rats are anesthetized, decapitated, and their brains rapidly removed. The striatum and frontal cortex are removed by free-hand dissection with punches of NAc and amygdala taken from coronal slices. In order to prepare synaptosomes, tissue from the respective brain areas is homogenized in ice-cold 0.32 M sucrose (10 w v) at 450 rpm with a glass-Teflon homogenizer for 15 seconds. The homogenate is centrifuged at 1000 x g for 10 min followed by centrifugation of the resulting supernatant at 16,000 x g for 20 min. The resulting pellet is resuspended in Krebs-HEPES buffer and preincubated at 37 C for 10 min whereupon 2 to 4 Ci of 3H DA ( 40 Ci mmol) is added and incubated for an additional 10 min. Fifty to 100 l of the synaptosomal suspension is then transferred onto 25 mm GF-A glass-fiber filters...

Osmosensing and osmosignaling

An osmosensor is a protein that detects changes in water activity, or resulting changes in cell structure or composition, and directs osmoregulatory responses. Operationally, osmosensors are identified as proteins that respond with the same activity or output signal to isotonic aqueous solutions that differ in solute composition (e.g., those containing an electrolyte such as NaCl or a nonelectrolyte such as sucrose). Most detailed analyses of osmo-sensing and osmosignaling have focused on membrane-based osmosensors from moderately osmotolerant Eubacteria. The identified osmoregulatory systems include osmosensory transporters, the histidine kinase components of two-component transcriptional regulatory systems, and mechanosensi-tive channels (Table 5.2). In addition, osmotic pressure may control bacterial transcription without benefit of these sensory or signal transduction mechanisms.

Association of glycaemic response with satiety and food intake

The rate of hydrolysis of ingested carbohydrate and the rate of gastric emptying are determinants of the rate of glucose absorption, which, in turn, determines the extent and duration of the glucose rise after consumption of a food or meal. Circulating insulin levels are directly determined by p-cell stimulation by absorbed glucose or amino acids. As explained above, the insulin demand is determined not only by the amount of carbohydrate ingested but also by its quality, which will determine the rate of absorption. The GI of foods or meals provides an indication of the rate at which their carbohydrates are digested. Low-GI foods may be considered potential dietary tools to reduce glucose absorption rate and insulin response (Augustin et al., 2002). Slowly digested carbohydrates, which are low GI, may be used to prolong satiety compared with high-GI foods. Studies that have investigated this relationship are summarized in Table 3.3. In one study, the effect of different rice types on...

Future Challenges

The remarkable speed and precision of enzyme activity is already exploited in a number of different processes. For example, the enzyme glucose isomerase is used to modify corn syrup, converting some of the glucose into fructose, which is much sweeter than glucose. The resulting high-fructose corn syrup is used in the commercial production of a variety of beverages and food products. Other enzymes, including proteases, amylases, and lipases, are used in certain laundry detergents to facilitate stain removal. These enzymes break down proteins, starches, and fats, respectively, which otherwise adhere strongly to fabrics. Similar enzymes are being added to some dishwashing detergents, decreasing the reliance on chlorine bleaching agents and phosphates that can otherwise pollute the environment. Enzymes are also used by the pulp and paper industry to facilitate the bleaching process.

Definitions of a Low Medium or High GI Food or Diet

The GI of foods can be modified by changing the nature of starch (e.g. increasing amylopectin or decreasing amylose or by combing starch with protein gluten ) altering cooking methods (e.g. reducing the extent of gela-tinization or cooling to prevent retrogradation) using larger particle or piece size, adding some acids such as those in vinegar and lemon juice adding soluble fibers such as psyllium, or by adding or substituting lactose, fructose, or sucrose for starch or glucose. Sucrose

Intracranial Pressure Management

Several osmotic diuretic agents have been used to treat elevated ICP, including sucrose, albumin, urea and mannitol. Mannitol appears to be excluded from the CSF to a greater extent than other osmotic agents. Mannitol is a simple unbranched hydrocarbon with a half-life of approximately 0.25-1.7 hours. Its excretion is primarily renal, so its half-life may be extended in cases of impaired renal function. The recommended dose for mannitol is 0.25-2 g kg intravenously every 4 hours, with a peak decrease in ICP approximately 15 minutes after administration. Use of a loop diuretic 15 minutes after the administration of mannitol has been shown to potentiate its effect. Like all osmotic diuretics, mannitol works primarily by shifting water from the brain parenchyma to the intravascular space, thereby decreasing the volume of the intracranial contents and reducing ICP. Additionally, mannitol reduces intracranial elas-tance. Mannitol may also affect the reactivity of

Sugar And Birth Defects

The concept that refined sugar in all its forms will make and keep you sick is not new. In 1989, Weston A. Price, D.D.S., compiled some Dr. Price also found that many of the infectious diseases that plague the modern world were skipping over many of these populations. Tuberculosis was especially rampant throughout the world at that time, but many of the cultures that Dr. Price studied were unaffected. Dr. Price then had the opportunity to witness what happened to these isolated people when the modern foods finally found their way to them. Specifically, refined sugar and white flour were the predominant foods that were introduced in a wide variety of forms. What Dr. Price then observed was as amazing as it was disturbing. In the first generation of children born to mothers who were exposed to multiple sugar-laden foods, birth defects immediately appeared. The most readily apparent form of birth defect was deformity of the dental arch and the facial bony structures. Dr. Price noted that...

Plant Vacuoles Store Small Molecules and Enable a Cell to Elongate Rapidly

Most plant cells contain at least one membrane-limited internal vacuole. The number and size of vacuoles depend on both the type of cell and its stage of development a single vacuole may occupy as much as 80 percent of a mature plant cell (Figure 5-24). A variety of transport proteins in the vacuolar membrane allow plant cells to accumulate and store water, ions, and nutrients (e.g., sucrose, amino acids) within vacuoles (Chapter 7). Like a lysosome, the lumen of a vacuole contains a battery of degradative enzymes and has an acidic pH, which is maintained by similar transport proteins in the vacuolar membrane. Thus plant vacuoles may also have a degradative

Disruption of Cells Releases Their Organelles and Other Contents

The initial step in purifying subcellular structures is to rupture the plasma membrane and the cell wall, if present. First, the cells are suspended in a solution of appropriate pH and salt content, usually isotonic sucrose (0.25 M) or a combination of salts similar in composition to those in the cell's interior. Many cells can then be broken by stirring the cell suspension in a high-speed blender or by exposing it to ultrahigh-frequency sound (sonication). Plasma membranes can also be sheared by special pressurized tissue homogeniz-

Materials and methods

Mitochondria were prepared from SH-SY5Y cells according to Desagher et al. (1999). The cells were gathered, washed with PBS and suspended in the isotonic mitochondrial buffer (210 mM mannitol, 70 mM sucrose, 1 mM EDTA and 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.5) supplemented with complete protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche Diagnostics, Mannhein, Germany). The mito-chondrial fraction was prepared by homogenization and two steps of centrifugation.

Negative Side To Some Natural Foods

Some of the fastest glucose-releasing foods ever tested are potatoes, corn, white rice, and white flour-based foods, which would include pasta. These foods release glucose into the bloodstream substantially FASTER than sucrose (refined table sugar) However, this should not be taken as an excuse to indulge in sugar, but to avoid these foods as absolutely as sugar if weight loss alone is desired. If you add to this the desire to achieve good health, refined sugar must be avoided in its entirety. However, this is not to say that the high glycemic index vegetables need to be as scrupulously avoided as sugar. Refined sugar has no inherent nutritional value beyond being a source of glucose. Indulging in refined sugar not only shoots up your blood glucose, it also suppresses hunger so that every indulgence in sugar keeps you from eating food that is genuinely nutritious. Certainly, potatoes, corn, and white rice do have positive nutritional value far beyond...

Specific versus Global Control

Many bacteria can grow on a wide range of sugars, such as fructose (fruit sugar), lactose (milk sugar) and maltose (from starch breakdown), as well as glucose. When a preferred sugar, such as glucose, is present, less favored sugars, such as fructose, lactose or maltose, are not used. Only when glucose runs out will the other sugars be consumed. In molecular terms, this means the genes for using these other sugars are switched off when glucose is available.

Transport Of Ions And Small Molecules Across Cell Membranes

We begin our discussion by reviewing some general principles of transport across membranes and distinguishing three major classes of transport proteins. In subsequent sections, we describe the structure and operation of specific examples of each class and show how members of families of homologous transport proteins have different properties that enable different cell types to function appropriately. We also explain how specific combinations of transport proteins in different subcellular membranes enable cells to carry out essential physiological processes, including the maintenance of cytosolic pH, the accumulation of sucrose and salts in

Heterochromatin Causes Difficulty for Access to DNA in Eukaryotes

There are two families of chromatin remodeling complexes. The larger Swi Snf ( switch sniff ) complexes consist of eight to 12 proteins and bind to DNA strongly (Fig. 10.12). Swi Snf can both slide and remodel nucleosomes. Apparently, Swi Snf merges two nucleosomes into a new, looser structure. The smaller ISWI ( imitation switch ) complexes contain two to six polypeptides and can slide nucleosomes but cannot rearrange them. They bind to histones rather than to DNA (Fig. 10.12). (The Swi factors were named after the switching of mating type Snf factors refer to sucrose nonfermenting mutants. Both were found first in yeast.)

Numerous Transport Proteins Enable Plant Vacuoles to Accumulate Metabolites and Ions

The proton electrochemical gradient across the plant vacuole membrane is used in much the same way as the Na+ electrochemical gradient across the animal-cell plasma membrane to power the selective uptake or extrusion of ions and small molecules by various antiporters. In the leaf, for example, excess sucrose generated during photosynthesis in the day is stored in the vacuole during the night the stored sucrose moves into the cytoplasm and is metabolized to CO2 and H2O with concomitant generation of ATP from ADP and P(. A proton sucrose antiporter in the vacuolar membrane operates to accumulate sucrose in plant vacuoles. The inward movement of sucrose is powered by the outward movement of H+, which is favored by its concentration gradient (lumen cytosol) and by the cytosolic-negative potential across the vacuolar membrane (see Figure 7-23). Uptake of Ca2+ and Na+ into the vacuole from the cytosol against their concentration gradients is similarly mediated by proton antiporters. I

Osmotic Pressure Causes Water to Move Across Membranes

Water tends to move across a semipermeable membrane from a solution of low solute concentration to one of high concentration, a process termed osmosis, or osmotic flow. In other words, since solutions with a high concentration of dissolved solute have a lower concentration of water, water will spontaneously move from a solution of high water concentration to one of lower. In effect, osmosis is equivalent to diffusion of water. Osmotic pressure is defined as the hydrostatic pressure required to stop the net flow of water across a membrane separating solutions of different compositions (Figure 7-24). In this context, the membrane may be a layer of cells or a plasma membrane that is permeable to water but not to the solutes. The osmotic pressure is directly proportional to the difference in the concentration of the total number of solute molecules on each side of the membrane. For example, a 0.5 M NaCl solution is actually 0.5 M Na+ ions and 0.5 M Cl_ ions and has the same osmotic...

Sugars caloric sweeteners

Sugars are classified into three groups monosaccharides, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. The simplest molecules of sugars are the monosaccharides, which include galactose, fructose and glucose, the only monosaccharides absorbed by humans. Disaccharides (including lactose, maltose and sucrose) and trisaccharides (including raffinose, found in cottonseed and sugar beets), are derived from the union of monosaccharides. All of these sugars provide approximately 4 cal g. Household 'sugar', or 'table sugar', is extracted mainly from sugar cane or beet. This sugar is a disaccharide composed of 50 glucose and 50 fructose linked by a-1,4 glycosidic bonds (Pancoast and Junk, 1980). Glucose, also known as dextrose or corn syrup, is produced from corn starch. Fructose is the sweetest of the simple sugars and is found as the monosaccharide, along with glucose and sucrose, in fruits and vegetables (Park and Yetley, 1993). It is generally present in honey and fruits and vegetables in similar...

Milk and heart disease

There are strong statistical links between heart disease and both milk carbohydrates and nonfat milk. Seely published these studies in the 1980s, but the science has yet to surpass the propaganda.1 3 Interestingly, an especially strong statistical correlation emerges between heart disease and milk carbohydrates. Although a correlation cannot scientifically be considered the same as a cause-and-effect association, the data relating the increase in heart disease to increased sugar consumption (as noted in the last chapter) certainly suggest that the sugar in milk carbohydrates may be playing a similar role. Milk sugar, or lactose, is readily absorbed in the gut after being split into equal amounts of glucose, and another simple sugar, galactose. Further, the pasteurization process appears to allow a more rapid absorption of lactose, increasing the rate of glucose delivery into the system. Consistent with this observation, pasteurized milk promotes weight gain more effectively than...

Review The Concepts

Compare the role of H+-linked antiporters in the accumulation of neurotransmitters in synaptic vesicles and sucrose in the plant vacuole. Acetylcholine is a common neurotrans-mitter released at the synapse. Predict the consequences for muscle activation of decreased acetylcholine esterase activity at nerve-muscle synapses.

Functional Analysis ofExocytosis and Vesicle Recycling Using Styryl Dyes

The measurement of the size of functionally distinct vesicle pools is a critical step in linking the structure and function of presynaptic terminals. Styryl dyes are also quite useful in determination of vesicle pool sizes at the level of individual synapses (Mozhayeva et al., 2002). In these measurements, it is important to distinguish changes in the Ca2+ dependence of the release machinery from changes in numbers and maturational (release competent) states of synaptic vesicles. This distinction can be achieved by using saturating levels of Ca2+-dependent stimulation or Ca2+-independent stimulations, such as hypertonic sucrose application (typically +500m0sm), to mobilize vesicles. The recycling kinetics of readily releasable pool (RRP) vesicles can be determined using uptake and release of the styryl dye FM2-10 in response to hypertonic stimulation. To determine the total recycling pool, uptake and release of styryl dyes can be induced by sustained depolarization achieved via...

Umanganese For Pimples

It is important to keep the skin clean and free from oil. Facial steaming opens blocked skin pores and clears out sebum. Do not squeeze acne spots as they may become infected and leave scars. Reduce stress and avoid refined sugar and foods. For mild cases of acne, topical exfoliants and face washes are usually sufficient for medium cases, beneficial preparations should contain benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid for severe acne, topical or oral antibiotics may be necessary or vitamin A derived drugs which include topical Retin A and Accutane taken internally. Long-term antibiotic use should be avoided and vitamin B complex and acidophilus supplemented as antibiotics destroy intestinal flora. Sunlight and ultraviolet light are beneficial if not undertaken excessively.

Behaviour modification

Patients keep extensive records of their food intake throughout treatment. In the initial weeks, they record daily the types and amounts of foods eaten and their caloric value. They are instructed to eat a diet that they like but to reduce consumption of high-fat and high-sugar foods. (24) Most patients can decrease their intake by 500 to 700 kcal day simply by reducing their portion sizes, which have become excessively large in industrialized nations. This reduction is usually sufficient to induce a weight loss of 0.5 kg week for the first 12 to 16 weeks. In the United States, the Food Guide Pyramid, the ADA Exchange Lists (developed jointly by the American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association), and similar materials provide guidance for people who report that they do not know what to eat or do not have a structured meal plan.

Hcholf Diets And Triglyceride Metabolism

The normal decrease of hepatic lipogenesis in obese subjects during energy restriction64 suggest that there is no intrinsic, perhaps genetically determined, increased hepatic lipogenesis activity in obese patients. The acute response increase of liver lipogenesis to a high-CHO meal was more important in obese men than in lean men in a study by Marques-Lopes et al.65 This difference between lean and obese subjects during acute stimulation was not found during more prolonged overfeeding (96-h overfeeding with sucrose or glucose66 or 2 weeks of high-CHO diet).61 No clear evidence indicates enhanced sensitivity of hepatic lipogenesis to high-CHO intake in obese subjects.

Photosynthetic Stages and Light Absorbing Pigments

We now shift our attention to photosynthesis, the second main process for synthesizing ATP. Photosynthesis in plants occurs in chloroplasts, large organelles found mainly in leaf cells. The principal end products are two carbohydrates that are polymers of hexose (six-carbon) sugars sucrose, a glucose-fructose disaccharide (see Figure 2-17), and leaf starch, a large insoluble glucose polymer that is the primary storage carbohydrate in higher plants (Figure 8-29). Leaf starch is synthesized and stored in the chloroplast. Sucrose is synthesized in the leaf cytosol from three-carbon precursors generated in the chloroplast it is transported to nonphotosynthetic (nongreen) plant tissues (e.g., roots and seeds), which metabolize sucrose for energy by the pathways described in the previous sections. Photosynthesis in plants, as well as in eukaryotic single-celled algae and in several photosynthetic bacteria (e.g., the cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes), also generates oxygen. The overall...

Enzyme Mechanisms 231 Michaelis Menten mechanism

Michaelis and Menten set out to explain the mechanistic basis of the peculiar kinetic data that they had obtained from the invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis of sucrose. This reaction yields glucose and fructose from sucrose. In particular they wanted to understand the general relationship between the rate of the reaction catalyzed by a given amount of enzyme in a given volume and the concentration of sucrose. It had already been shown by others that the relationship was not linear and that the reaction rate increased to a maximum value, and not beyond, as the substrate concentration was increased. This outcome exemplified the phenomenon known as saturation. Their mechanistic interpretation of the data involved postulating that the enzyme forms a complex with sucrose and the idea that this complex then undergoes hydrolysis at a rate that is slow relative to the rate of formation of the enzyme-sucrose complex. The reaction scheme they proposed was

Three of the Four Stages in Photosynthesis Occur Only During Illumination

The photosynthetic process in plants can be divided into four stages, each localized to a defined area of the chloro-plast (1) absorption of light, (2) electron transport leading to formation of O2 from H2O, reduction of NADP+ to NADPH, and generation of a proton-motive force, (3) synthesis of ATP, and (4) conversion of CO2 into carbohydrates, commonly referred to as carbon fixation. All four stages of photosynthesis are tightly coupled and controlled so as to produce the amount of carbohydrate required by the plant. All the reactions in stages 1-3 are catalyzed by proteins in the thylakoid membrane. The enzymes that incorporate CO2 into chemical intermediates and then convert them to starch are soluble constituents of the chloroplast stroma. The enzymes that form sucrose from three-carbon intermediates are in the cytosol.

The Role of Rafts in Membrane Bending

It is impossible to mention membrane cholesterol without considering the idea of rafts, laterally demarcated domains in the membrane. Some early studies on red cells did suggest that the membrane was not simply a fluid mixture, but that it had a patchwork quality 52, 53 . The study of the tiny invaginations in the plasma membrane of the endothelial cell known as caveolae started the trail 20, 54-56 . Rothberg and others showed that caveolae were rich in the membrane protein cave-olin, a 21 kDa hairpin protein that has both N-and C-termini in the cytosol and a loop of hydrophobic sequence that enters the membrane and does a U-turn within it. Simons and others then showed that animal cell membranes could be fractionated using a simple but novel technique in which membranes were exposed to cold non-ionic detergent such as Triton X-100, then centrifuged on a sucrose gradient 22 . A fraction of the membrane is insoluble under these conditions, and floats on the sucrose gradient. This...

Amino Acid Availability from Dietary Protein Sources

However, heat processing itself may damage amino acids. For example, heat treatment of protein in the presence of reducing sugars can promote reactions altering the lysine amino groups in the protein. This reaction, called the Maillard, or browning, reaction, can be seen in milk processing in which lactose reacts with lysine at high temperatures. Oxidative or alkaline processing conditions may alter other essential and nonessential amino acids, inducing loss of methionine or formation of amino acid products that have toxic properties. Likewise, storage conditions may affect the nutritional quality of the protein. Thus, processing or cooking the protein source as well as storage conditions and other factors must be considered in evaluating the quality of the protein.

Biochemical Approaches to Measuring Neurotransmitter Release

In principle, high-density primary neuronal cultures and acute or chronic brain slice preparations can be used to measure neurotransmitter release biochemically. However, by far the most commonly used preparation is synaptosomes, resealed broken-off nerve terminals obtained by homogenization of brain tissue in isotonic solutions of low ionic strength and differential centrifugation. Synaptosomes retain most of the cytoplasm, synaptic vesicles, mitochondria, and other organelles found in presynaptic terminals. When incubated in oxygenated balanced salt solutions containing glucose, synaptosomes remain metabolically active for several hours ex vivo, generating ATP and maintaining membrane potential and normal channel function (Nicholls, 2003). Depending on the method used, synaptosomes can be prepared quickly (under 30 min) in crude form from a large portion of the brain (e.g., neocortex) or in highly pure form from specific brain region (e.g., CA3 region of hippocampus) after several...

Keep Your Teeth And Gums Healthy

Some medicines that are often prescribed for people with MS can cause dry mouth, which can cause increased risk of dental problems. Amantadine is one example. Baclofen also can cause dry mouth. Drink sips of water or calorie-free beverages to moisten the mouth or try sucking on sugar-free candy or chewing sugar-free gum. (Be aware that sweeteners, such as sorbitol, found in sugar-free gum and candies, can

Physical Chemical and Microbial Properties of Apples

At present, the effects of the chemical composition of fruit on patulin production are not well understood. Apples are composed of a complex mixture of sugars (primarily fructose, glucose, and sucrose), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides, together with malic, quinic, and citric acids, polyphenols, amides and other nitrogenous compounds, soluble pectin, vitamins, minerals, water, and a variety of esters. The relative proportions of these components depend on the apple cultivar, the conditions under which the apples were grown, the state of maturity of fruit at the time of pressing, and extent of damage to the fruit. Patulin is produced over the range of pH values found in apple juice (3.2 to 3.8) and is stable at these pH values, but degrades at higher pH values 32,91,96 . McCallum et al. 36 found that the concentration of patulin formed in juice was correlated negatively with the pH value. Prusky et al. 97 reported that Penicillium spp. colonization and growth are enhanced by low...

Determining Thermal Characteristics

In certain instances, the temperature during primary drying is critical for the product in the presence of ice and early in secondary drying. For example, the solid-liquid phase diagram for sucrose, presented by MacKenzie, indicates that there is a glass transition at -32 to -34 C when the sucrose is in the presence of ice and before any significant desorption 25 .

Carbohydrate And Insulin Sensitivity

Daly et al. (28) have recently reviewed the evidence and clinical implications of dietary carbohydrates and insulin sensitivity. This is a controversial area. Extensive studies in animals show a detrimental effect of diets very high in fructose or sucrose, particularly in association with induction of hypertrigly-ceridaemia. The more limited results in human studies show conflicting results, partly because of heterogeneity of design. Certain groups of subjects such as the elderly, sedentary subjects, those with established coronary artery disease, males and hyperinsulinaemic subjects may be more sensitive to very high intakes of sucrose and fructose than others.

Carbohydrate And Plasma Lipids

The elevation of blood lipid concentrations in response to large amounts of dietary sugars, particularly fructose and sucrose, has been recognised for many years. There are also many other variables that can influence postprandial TG concentrations, such as obesity, excessive alcohol consumption, genetic background and renal failure. The literature contains conflicting findings, particularly in studies that contain 20 of energy from sucrose or 5 from fructose, where both sugars have been shown to raise TG concentrations. In studies containing amounts of sugars more typical of dietary habits in the Western world, elevated plasma TG concentrations are not usually observed (29). Interestingly, the glycaemic index of carbohydrate was significantly related to serum HDL-cholesterol in a retrospective cross-sectional study of 2200 middle-aged adults, where a low glycaemic diet was the only dietary variable related to the CHD risk factors measured (31).

Nase I Inhibition Assay Protocol

Cells (usually 5 x 106 in 75-cm2 flasks depending on cell type), appropriately treated, are washed three times with ice-cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and suspended in 300 ml of lysis buffer containing 10 mM K2HPO4, 100 mM NaF, 50 mM KCl, 2 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 0.2 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), 0.5 Triton X-100, and 1 M sucrose, pH 7.0.

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass

The global demand for energy has been growing and is expected to continue to grow during the next decades. While oil supplies are currently still abundant, it is anticipated that peak oil production will be reached between 2010 and 2025. After that point, it will become increasingly expensive to pump and distribute oil (Belyaev et al., 2002). This, together with the desire of oil-importing countries to become less dependent on foreign oil, the uncertain political situation in many oil-exporting countries, and the need to curb the emission of greenhouse gases, has stimulated a search for alternative and renewable energy sources, including ethanol and bio-diesel. Ethanol is currently produced from sugar cane in Brazil, and from corn grain in the US. The corn grain is processed to yield simple sugars that are converted to ethanol through fermentation. In the US this is carried out by a well-developed industry that produced 4 billion gallons (15 million liters) in 2005. Yet the current...

Sperm Nuclei Preparation

1X Nuclear Preparation Butter (NPB) 250 mM sucrose (1.5 M stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 15 mM HEPES (1M stock titrate with KOH so that pH 7.7 is at 15 mM, filter-sterilize, and store aliquots at -20 C) (see Note 4), 0.5 mM spermidine trihydrochloride (Sigma S-2501 10 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 0.2 mM spermine tetrahydrochloride (Sigma S-1141 10 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 1 mM dithiothreitol (Sigma D-0632 100 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C) (see Notes 4 and 5). 5. Sperm dilution buffer (store at -20 C in 0.5-mL aliquots) 250 mM sucrose, 75 mM KCl, 1 mM EDTA (0.5 M stock, pH8), 0.5 mM spermidine trihydrochloride (Sigma S-2501 10 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 0.2 mM spermine tetrahydrochloride (Sigma S-1141 10 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C), 1 mM dithiothreitol (Sigma D-0632 100 mM stock filter-sterilize and store aliquots at -20 C).

The Spin Echo And The Attached Proton Test

In this chapter, we will look at a one-dimensional technique for 1H-decoupled 13 C spectra that uses the phase of the 13C signal (positive or negative peaks) as a way to encode information about the number of protons attached to a carbon (Cq, CH, CH2, or CH3). We saw that a fully coupled spectrum gives this information, but the sensitivity is very low, and even with a simple molecule like sucrose, the overlapping multiplets are difficult to sort out. By designing experiments that modulate the sign of a single 1H-decoupled carbon peak (positive or negative), we can get this information without overlap, because the peak remains a singlet and does not increase its horizontal footprint . This editing of the 13C spectrum according to the number of attached protons (Cq, CH,

Carboxyhydrate Amines A Strong Primary Binding Site May Help in Hydroxyl Group Coordination

In a circular dichroism study of Ni2+ complexes in solution with -glycosylamine ligands formed by 1,3-diaminopropane and pentoses such as d--xylose, D-ribose or D-arabinose, it was concluded that two of the tridentate -glycosylamine ligands coordinate to one Ni2+, each ligand being bound in a meridional mode by the primary amino group, the N-glycosidic secondary amino group and the C2 hydroxyl group of the sugar moiety 37 . For the D-ribose derivative this binding mode was confirmed by an X-ray structure analysis 37 . Interestingly, crystalline Ni2+ complexes of dianionic glycopyranoside ligands were obtained by reaction of Ni tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (OH)2 with methyl-D-glucopyranoside or sucrose 38 . In the latter case (C2)O and (C3)O chelation occurs in the glucose part of the disaccharide. It is important to note that here deprotonated hydroxyl groups participate in Ni2+ binding. In this context it may also be mentioned that Ni2+ complexes of N,N'-alkylated ethylenediamine are able...

Vitamin C And Antioxidants

We now look at compounds that derive from saccha-rides, or sugars. Saccharides are the closest relatives to glucose, the starting material for all botanical compounds in fact, glucose itself is a saccharide. The term saccharide refers to any carbohydrate, but is especially applied to the simple sugars monosaccharides, disac-charides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.a

Membrane Bound DGlucose Dehydrogenase mGDH

When m-GDH was solubilized and purified from Gluconobacter suboxydans IFO 12528, other species of membrane-bound dehydrogenases were eliminated by treating the enzyme solution at pH 2.5 in the initial stage of enzyme purification. The purified m-GDH was homogeneous in analytical ultracentrifugation (4.2 S) and sucrose density gradient centrifugation 40 . m-GDH from acetic acid bacteria was highly hydrophobic and 87 kDa of its molecular mass has been determined by SDS-PAGE in the presence of urea. The existence of PQQ as the primary coenzyme has been confirmed with the purified enzyme. The optimum pH of D-glucose oxidation is found to be pH 3.0 with potassium ferricyanide and pH 6.0 with PMS-DCIP. The substrate specificity of the enzyme seems to be restricted to D-glucose, and other sugars are not oxidized except for maltose, which is oxidized at a low rate. Due to the hydrophobicity, the enzyme is regarded as a typical integral membrane protein in acetic acid bacteria.

Product case study Kepivance

Keratinocyte growth factor is a 140 amino acid, 16.3 kDa member of the FGF family. It differs from native keratinocyte growth factor in that the first 23 N-terminal amino acids have been deleted, which improves its stability. After cell growth the product is recovered and purified by a multistep chromatographic protocol. It is presented in lyophilized format in single-use vials and containing mannitol, sucrose, polysorbate 20 and histidine as excipients. It is administered by daily i.v. injection, usually for several days.

Cellular Level Photosynthesis

Figure 11.1 Two important biochemical cycles involved in photosynthesis are the production of ATP and NADPH using light energy and photosystems I and II and the Calvin cycle wherein RuBP is produced and the pathway to the ultimate production of sucrose is initiated. RuBP may be either carboxylated with C02 (PCR) or oxidized with 02 (PCO). Figure 11.1 Two important biochemical cycles involved in photosynthesis are the production of ATP and NADPH using light energy and photosystems I and II and the Calvin cycle wherein RuBP is produced and the pathway to the ultimate production of sucrose is initiated. RuBP may be either carboxylated with C02 (PCR) or oxidized with 02 (PCO). An extremely simplified view of the important biochemical reactions associated with photosynthesis is shown in Fig. 11.1. In brief, light energy as photons interacts with two photosystems to produce ATP and NADPH. These compounds are required to convert (ultimately) phosphoglycerate (PGA) to sucrose and ribulose...

Representations and Mental Mechanisms

In the simplest nervous systems, representations figure in the immediate coordination of motor systems in response to information secured through the senses (e.g., swimming, so as to move upwards through a sucrose gradient). More complex nervous systems can do much more, ranging from the ordinary (planning and controlling a sequence of behaviors to achieve the goal of procuring milk for breakfast) to the sublime (thinking about human freedom). In both the simpler cases and the more complex cases, part of the challenge for the organism is to coordinate its mental activity with things external to it. Often the relevant external phenomena are immediately available to the organism through its senses. Other times they are removed in space and time. In either case, in order to coordinate the organism's responses, the brain must acquire information about the external phenomena. As the proximal causal processes that determine the mechanism's responses are the operations of the components of...

Mechanisms of Increased TCRCD3Mediated [Ca2i Response in Sle T Cells

In the same studies the expression and function of different components of lipid rafts were assessed. Using confocal microscopy, it was shown that while the TCR Z chain is uniformly distributed on the normal T cell membrane, in SLE T cells residual Z chain is preferentially colocalized with lipid rafts (Krishnan et al., 2004), confirming previous results where the bulk of residual Z chain in SLE T cells was found to be limited to detergent-insoluble fractions (Nambiar et al., 2002). More importantly, lipid rafts from SLE T cells contained FcRy-chain and Syk kinase, which were absent in normal T cells. In addition, ZAP-70 present in normal lipid rafts was not detected in SLE lipid rafts (Krishnan et al., 2004). These findings were furthermore confirmed by the analysis of lipid raft fractions following sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. Other qualitative alterations of lipid raft composition have been recently reported where the majority of SLE patients studied presented an...

Bioaerosol Timeof Flight mass Spectrometry

Figure 13.11b shows the same mixture with Bacillus spores added, along with baking soda and powdered sugar, two previously uncharacterized samples. Note that a large fraction of the particles are called Other in response to the addition of the unknown samples. Figure 13.11c shows the mixture with Clostridium cells nebulized into the sample. They were not detected in Figure 13.11b, and fungal spores, which are still absent, are not detected in Figure 13.11c. Although the Bacillus spores run in the tests shown were from B. globigii, separate field tests run at an offsite biosafety level 3 facility have demonstrated the ability of BAMS to recognize B. anthracis from within a complex mixture as well. Bacilli, Baking Soda and Powdered Sugar Added Clostridium Added Bacilli, Baking Soda and Powdered Sugar Added Clostridium Added

Regulation of RNA polymerases

Cyclic AMP receptor protein is an example of transcription activators in E. coli. When E. coli is grown in the absence of sugars other than glucose, the binding of cyclic AMP receptor protein activates transcription of more than 20 RNA transcripts that code for the enzymes that metabolize these sugars. The 3-A resolution crystal structure of the cyclic AMP receptor protein and DNA complex suggests that the cyclic AMP receptor protein induces a 90 hairpin bend in the DNA that might facilitate the contacts between the RNA polymerase and DNA.27

Historical Perspectives On Carbohydrate

By the 1970s pharmaceutical treatments had expanded with the introduction of oral hypoglycaemic drugs and the average carbohydrate intake rose to about 40 energy. Prohibition of sucrose was now the main message. With extreme caution, several experimental studies compared higher carbohydrate diets ( 50 energy) with the traditional diabetes diet and found improved glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity (12-14). In the late 1970s, there was a revolution in thinking about diabetic diets and a spurt of experimental studies indicated that high-carbohydrate diets were no worse, if not better, for people with diabetes because they lowered blood cholesterol levels (see below). By then, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets were being recommended for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in the general population.

Which Diet Is Best For Improving Insulin Sensitivity

Indirect evidence suggests that the fibre content and GI of the diet may influence insulin sensitivity, weight gain and the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. In the CARDIA study of young adults, low fibre consumption predicted 10-year weight gain and fasting insulin levels (a measure of insulin resistance) more strongly than did total or saturated fat consumption (54). Fibre but not amount and type of fat was associated with 2-h insulin levels. Two other large-scale prospective studies in healthy subjects showed that diets based on low-fibre, high-GI foods doubled the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, after controlling for known risk factors such as age and body mass index (55,56). Importantly, the total carbohydrate and refined sugar content of the diet, and the amount and type of fat consumed, were not found to be independent risk factors in these studies.

Vectors and Bacterial Strains

If making a large number of libraries, it is much less expensive to prepare arms by agarose gel electrophoresis or by sucrose density gradients (please see Chapter 2, Protocol 16) than to purchase them. For occasional users, dephosphorylated arms for some vectors (e.g., gt10, A.Fix, and T ZipLox) are available from Stratagene, Life Technologies, and other commercial suppliers. It is important to carry out a series of pilot reactions to check that the arms can be ligated to foreign DNA and packaged efficiently into infectious bacteriophage A, particles. DNAs for these controls are usually included with commercial preparations of vector arms.

Gmp Gmp Gmp Gmp Gmp Gmp Gmp Gmp

In the United States, fruit juice adulteration is estimated to be worth at least a billion dollars per year. Thus, it is important to have methodologies to detect adulterations, and simple tests have been developed to characterize caramels.30 However, the detection of caramel as an adulterant is a challenge, because the caramelization process may occur during the normal processing of sugary foods such as juices new methodologies have been implemented to solve this problem. A ion-pair highperformance liquid chromatographic method has been introduced to identify the addition of class III caramel to different food materials, such as beers, biscuits, gravy powders, savory spreads, and bakery goods the limit of detection is 0.1 g L for beers and 0.3 g kg for solid foods.37 The caramel content of soft drinks has been studied by capillary electrophoresis. The implemented method uses a carbonate buffer. In the electrograms of class IV caramel is observed a large broad peak that corresponds to...

Prevention and Treatment

The most important method for controlling dental caries is restricting sucrose and other refined dietary carbohydrates, thereby reducing Streptococcus mutans colonization of teeth and acid production by cariogenic plaques. Dental caries can be reduced by 90 if sucrose-containing sweets are eliminated from the diet. It is not, however, simply the quantity of sugar in the diet that is important. The frequency of eating and the length of time food stays on the teeth is more critical than the actual quantity of sucrose ingested. Interestingly, chewing paraffin or sorbitol-sweetened gum reduces dental caries, probably because it increases the flow of saliva.

Product case study Bene Fix

BeneFix (tradename, also known as nonacog alfa) is a recombinant human blood factor IX approved for general medical use in the USA and EU since 1997. It is indicated for the control and prevention of haemorrhagic episodes in patients with haemophilia B (Christmas disease), including use in a surgical setting. The 55 kDa, 415 amino acid, single-chain protein displays identical amino acid sequence and a relatively similar post-translational modification profile to that of native, serum-derived factor IX. Post-translational modifications present include both N- and O-linked glycosylation, y-carboxylation, P-hydroxylation, sulfation and phosphorylation. The recombinant blood factor IX is produced in an engineered CHO cell line, and downstream processing entails multiple chromatographic steps, ultrafiltration and diafiltration. The final product is presented in lyophilized form in single-use vials and contains histidine, sucrose, glycine and polysorbate 80 as excipients. Vials contain 250,...

Carbohydrate Intolerance

There is a range of clinical disorders in which sugar digestion or absorption is disturbed and gives rise to sugar intolerance, creating symptoms by the undigested or unabsorbed sugar and causing water to enter the intestine, which activates peristalsis and induces passage of frequent fluid stools. The undigested carbohydrate can also enter the colon and become fermented into diarrheic agents. The disorders are usually classified as (a) congenital or (b) secondary to some other disease, to impaired digestion of disaccharides, or to impaired absorption of the monosaccharides. The congenital deficiencies, although relatively rare, are life threatening examples are sucrase-maltase deficiency (watery diarrhea after ingesting sucrose-containing foods), alactasia (absence of lactase, diarrhea from ingestion of milk), glucose-galactose malabsorption (diarrhea from ingestion of glucose, galactose, or lactose), and the very rare trehalase deficiency (intolerance to trehalose in mushrooms)....

Diagnosis of Carbohydrate Intolerance

Clinical quantitative assessment of the efficiency of the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in humans rests mainly on relatively simple tests in which carbohydrate loads (at least 50 g) are ingested and blood samples are taken to estimate the sugar levels attained at various time intervals after ingestion. The levels are then compared with those obtained in normal subjects. The most commonly used test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGGT). Typically, nonpregnant adults take 75 g of glucose over 5 minutes and the glucose is estimated in serum at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. A pregnant woman takes 100 g of glucose and has another estimate at 180 minutes. A child takes 1.75 g kg up to the maximum of 75 g (58). Values above normal indicate some form of inadequate handling of the ingested glucose. This test is often used to assess for diabetes mellitus. The reproducibility of the OGTT has been claimed to be poor, even when repeated in the same...

Carbohydrates and Health

The mean annual consumption of sucrose plus fructose in developed countries is about 25 of the caloric intake. Fructose is more lipogenic than glucose. This high intake of sucrose (approximately 50 kg year person) has been contentiously implicated in influencing the health of humans, apart from caries, because a high consumption of sucrose fructose in experimental animals (often rats) creates, among other things, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and diabetic-like tissue lesions (66). However, while a hyperlipidemic effect of sucrose and fructose has been demonstrated in a number of human studies, firm conclusions cannot be made because of great variations in the type of subjects, duration of intake, background diet, and study conditions ( 66). The general conclusion of an FDA-sponsored survey published in 1986 was that the present voluntary intake of sucrose and fructose is not harmful to humans ( 67). A more recent review, while accepting that the intake of sucrose...

Advanced Uses of Fire

For example, one can easily change the flavor of caramel by varying the type of sugar. Caramels can be made from glucose, fructose, or, more generally, from sugars other than sucrose (ordinary cane sugar). An experiment that anyone can perform will show that these caramels may already be present in foods. It is based on an apparently paradoxical observation made by cooks who, in the course of making a b arnaise sauce, for example, reduce a combination of chopped shallots and white wine until the liquid is completely evaporated Certain white wines leave no residue in the pan. Why Because they lack glucose, glycerol, and many other things. The practical lesson is this If your wine is insufficiently rich in such aromatic molecules, add some glucose to it before reducing sec and you will obtain a glucose caramel that improves the flavor of the sauce.

On Chemistry in Cooking

The possibilities of chemistry are unlimited. Our kitchen shelves hold a great many nearly pure ingredients sodium chloride, sucrose, triglycerides (in oil), ethanol, acetic acid, and so on. And the shelves of our libraries contain a great many chemical treatises that perfectly describe the reactions of these molecules. The challenge facing cooks and chemists today is to apply this knowledge in order to create new flavors.

Recommendations of Professional Groups Poor Diet

Professional groups differ on some of the specifics of diet, but generally recommend that patients limit the intake of high-fat (especially saturated and trans-unsaturated fat) and high-sugar foods and eat a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables (e.g., five or more servings) and whole grains. There are differences, however, in the specifics. For example, the United States Department of Agriculture's 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans suggests eating no more than 30 of calories from fat, while the American Heart Association suggests eating between 25 and 35 of calories from fat.94,95 The American Cancer Society guidelines, released in 2002, are less specific but generally recommend the same above changes as other groups.96

Rafts gel lipids with lower Tm liquid crystalline phase separated

We implied above that trehalose works well for freeze-drying liposomes under less than optimal conditions. The same applies for storage under conditions that would normally degrade the biomaterial. Bacteria freeze-dried in the presence of trehalose showed remarkably high survival immediately after freeze drying. Furthermore, t the bacteria freeze-dried with trehalose retained high viability even after long exposure to moist air.72 By contrast, when the bacteria were freeze-dried with sucrose they showed lower initial survival, and when they were exposed to moist air viability deceased rapidly. Further, when immunoconjugates were freeze dried with trehalose or other disaccharides all the sugars provided reasonable levels of preservation. However, when the dry samples were stored at high relative humilities and temperatures, those dried with trehalose were stable for much longer than those dried with other sugars.73 This finding is of some considerable significance since there is a need...

The Role of IL6 in Mediating the Adverse Effects of Social Stress

This hypothesis was tested by determining whether intracranial administration of a neutralizing antibody to IL-6 could reverse the adverse effects of SDR during acute TMEV infection (Johnson et al., 2005a, 2006b). Before each SDR session, mice in the PRE-SDR or no-stress groups received either an intracranial injection of a neutralizing antibody to IL-6 or the vehicle. After their last SDR session, the mice were infected with TMEV and monitored for the development of illness behaviors and motor impairment. As anticipated, exposure to SDR prior to infection led to a loss of sucrose preference, allodynia, decreased locomotor activity, a loss of body weight, reduced stride length, and greater hind limb impairment in the vehicle control group. In contrast, pretreatment with the IL-6 neutralizing antibody blocked the effects of SDR on illness behavior and motor function. In addition, administration of the neutralizing antibody to IL-6 reversed PRE-SDR-induced increases in meningitis,...

Candidate Gene Approaches

Given substantial evidence from animal studies linking the serotonin (5-HT) system to alcohol intake (98), several investigators have focused on the role of 5-HT receptor genes in ethanol reward. Interest in the 5-HT1B receptor gene in particular was encouraged by an initial report that 5-HT1B - - mice drank twice as much ethanol as 129 Sv-ter control mice across a range of ethanol concentrations in a two-bottle home-cage drinking procedure (99) . This difference did not appear to be related to taste or calories because there were no differences in food intake or consumption of sucrose, saccharin, or quinine. A subsequent pair of conditioning studies extended these observations by showing that deletion of the 5-HT1B receptor reduced ethanol reward as indexed by

Sectioning After In Situ Hybridization

Gel-albumin consists of 0.5 (w v) gelatin (Sigma), 30 (w v) egg albumin (Sigma), and 20 (w v) sucrose (Sigma) in PBS. Heat the gelatin to dissolve in PBS (this takes quite a long time), cool and add egg albumin (powder), and allow to dissolve. Then dissolve the sucrose, filter through gauze, and store frozen in aliquots of 50 mL. This material can be repeatedly frozen and thawed.

Varying Biopolymer VoLume Fraction and Cytoplasmic Solute Concentrations OsmoticanY

Osmolytes used by many types of cells have been identified (Yancey etal., 1982). Cytoplasmic and periplasmic E. coli osmolytes and other osmotically regulated E. coli solutes are listed in Table 27.1. Common organic osmolytes include sugars (trehalose in E. coli, sucrose in some algae and plants), other polyols (glycerol in animals and mannitol in some algae and plants), amino acids and their derivatives in E. coli glutamate- and, when available, proline, ectoine acid), glycine betaine (GB N,N,N-trimethyl glycine) , and tri-methyl amine oxide (in many marine animals). K+ is the only inorganic osmolyte. E. coli, growing at high osmolality in MOPS-buffered minimal glucose medium (MBM) (Neidhardt et al., 1974), actively accumulates cytoplasmic potassium glutamate and KMOPS by transport of K+ (Epstein and Schultz, 1965) and MOPS- (Cayley et al., 1989) and synthesis of glutamate (Dinnbier et al., 1988 McLaggan et al., 1994). The cytoplasmic concentration of K+ increases in response to...

Findings from Reinstatement Studies

It remains to be established whether acamprosate or noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists might alter reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction induced by stress and cue-induced conditioned withdrawal, but, preliminary findings may indicate that the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MRZ 2 579 nonselectively inhibits reinstatement of ethanol- and water-seeking behavior induced by conditioned stimuli in the rat (Bienkowski, personal communication). In a very recent study, Vosler et al. (116) used a discriminative two-lever test to examine the ability of dizocilpine to reinstate ethanol-seeking behavior. In this study, one group of rats was trained to lever-press for ethanol and another group to lever-press for sucrose. After extinction, rats were injected with ethanol (0.5 g kg). The ethanol group showed reinstatement of lever responding, whereas the sucrose group showed minimal responding following ethanol priming. In contrast, dizocilpine increased responding in both...

Aquaporin function in plant membranes

Following the procedure of Kjellbom and Larsson (1984), the first step of preparing plasma membranes is the isolation of crude membrane fractions, the microsomes. Starting material can be leaf or root tissue. One hundred grams fresh weight is homogenized three times for 30 s in 300 ml 0.33 M sucrose, 50 mMHEPES KOH, pH 7.5, 5 mMEDTA, 5 mMdithiothreitol (DTT), 5 mM ascorbic acid, 0.5 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 0.2 bovine serum albumin (BSA), 0.2 casein (boiled for 10 min), and 0.6 polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (to remove phenolic compounds) using a kitchen homogenizer. The homogenate is filtered through three layers of miracloth, and the bulk of chloroplasts and mitochondria is sedimented by centrifuga-tion at 5000 for 10 min. The membranes in the supernatant are collected at 100,000 for 1 h. This pellet is resuspended to a total volume of 10 ml in 0.33 M sucrose, 5 mM HEPES KOH, pH 7.5, 5 mM KCl, 1 mM DTT, and 0.1 mM EDTA. The two-phase partitioning system (Lundborg et al., 1981...

Conditioning Of Druginduced Responses

US-paired cues than the nonpaired cues, the US is inferred to have produced a conditioned approach response and or an internal conditioned reward state. If they approach and spend more time in the presence of the control-paired cues than the drug cues, the US is inferred to have produced a conditioned escape response and or a conditioned aversive state. Conditioned cue preferences have been produced using food (Bechara & van der Kooy, 1992 White & McDonald, 1992b), sucrose solutions (Everitt, Morris, O'Brien, & Robbins, 1991 White & Carr), and sexual partners (Everitt, 1990 Mehrara & Baum, 1990) as the US.

Limitations And Issues

A basic concern is the limited set of materials that can be safely packaged with a drug. It is the inactive components that impart flexibility to a dosage form. Unfortunately, relatively few materials have been thoroughly evaluated for use in pulmonary products, and only one excipient, lactose, is approved for general use. From a pharmaceutical perspective, lactose is less than ideal, being a reducing sugar, a characteristic that can have implications for protein and peptide stability 111,112 . Not surprisingly therefore, various other sugars, such as nonreducing trehalose, are being used with the tacit but reasonable assumption that they are safe. Several others are found in combination with a specific product (e.g., the components of lung surfactant) and thus have been employed in delivery systems. Other, untested compounds that are generally regarded as safe (GRAS) by other

Regulation Of Intra And Extracellular Volume And Osmolality

Extracellular volume is measured directly, and the intracellular volume is estimated as the difference between total body water and extracellular volume. Measurement of total body water by dilution techniques is reproducible and reliable, but measurement of extracellular volume is not, because different markers have different volumes of distribution. Markers such as sodium, chloride, and bromide penetrate the cells to some extent, whereas markers such as mannitol, inulin, and sucrose do not penetrate certain parts of the ECF. Thus, depending on the type of marker used, ECF volume could vary from 27 to 53 of total body water (Iabje.6.1).

Associative learning and the proboscis extension reflex in honey bees

Www Digram Honey Bee Brain Com

One of the simplest behaviours that a honey bee (Apis mellifera) produces is to extend its proboscis, or tongue, in response to a drop of sucrose solution applied to chemosensory hairs on the proboscis or antenna (Fig. 9.3a). A bee will occasionally extend its proboscis without any obvious stimulation, or if a tiny puff of a particular odour such as the smell of carnation or orange is blown at an antenna. If the bee has recently tasted sucrose, the likelihood that it will extend its proboscis in response to a subsequent odour puff increases - stimulation with sucrose is said to sensitise the proboscis-extension response. A much greater enhancement of the response to a puff of odour occurs, however, after the odour puff has been paired with delivery of a drop of sucrose. For maximum effect, the odour puff must be delivered between 1 and 3 s before the drop of sucrose (Bitterman et al., 1983). The next time that the odour is directed at an antenna, there is a very high chance that the...

Early childhood caries

Killian Clarke 1924 Dental Caries

Mutans streptococci are Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci, currently known to be composed of seven species (Tab. 1). Among them, S. mutans and S. sobrinus are the species recovered from human oral microflora. An individual harbors either one or both species of mutans streptococci in the mouth, especially in the supragingival plaque, and the occurrence rate of S. mutans is commonly higher than that of S. sobrinus. The most important virulent factor of mutans streptococci as cariogenic bacteria is attributed to a group of enzymes, glucosyltransferases (GTFs), which catalyze the formation of water-insoluble and -soluble extracellular polysaccharides, glucans. Water-insoluble glucans enable the microorganisms to adhere to the tooth surface. GTFs transfer a glucose moiety derived from sucrose, disaccharide of glucose and fructose, to the end of growing glucan molecule n sucrose (glucose)n + n fructose where sucrose is the sole substrate for GTFs. Because the hydrolysis of...

Other Evidence for Dietary Effects

Concern has been raised recently that the rapidly increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup in the United States, due to its becoming the major sweetener used in beverages since the 1970s, is a major contributor to the increasing prevalence of obesity in the United States 16 . Reported consumption of sweetened beverages predicted the incidence of diabetes in the Nurses Health Study, in which persons reporting consumption of at least 1 beverage day had about double the incidence rate of diabetes as those reporting such consumption less than once per month 17 .

Types of training protocols in which reinforcement is made contingent upon performance of the proper behaviour

Thorndike Cat Experiment

Experimental evidence could be provided for the involvement of each of the above associative structures in instrumental conditioning, but, at the same time, none of these postulated associations could serve as a sufficient, much less so exclusive explanation ( criterion) for the behaviour. It is likely, therefore, that in instrumental conditioning, internal representations could be formed that link the three elements, S, R, and O, with associative weights that depend on the task, context, and a priori knowledge of the subject. Just as an example to illustrate that instrumental conditioning involves more knowledge than detected by the naive eye, consider the following experiment (Colwill and Rescorla 1985) rats were trained on two different instrumental responses, lever pressing and chain pulling, each associated with a different reinforcer, sucrose solution or food pellets. Then each rat received pairing of one of the reinforcers with a malaise-inducing injection of LiCl ( conditioned...

Formulation Choices in Freeze Drying 20321 Cryoprotectants

Damage during lyophilization can be of two fundamental types, damage during the freezing process and damage either during the dehydration process or on reconstitution. Freezing introduces a concentration of the biological and the excipients surrounding it as the available water is preferentially compartmentalized into ice crystals. Eventually a glassy state is achieved where the biological is maximally concentrated. This may result in marked changes in the local concentration of excipients (for instance NaCl) and alteration in the microenvironment (e.g. pH) of the medium. Selective crystallization of mixed phosphate components can cause the pH of a sodium phosphate-buffered solution to shift from neutral pH to pH 3 during freezing (Anchordoquy & Carpenter 1996). Such changes may induce denaturation of the biological or loss of functional activity. Bio-logicals may also be inherently less stable at higher concentrations, and there may be an increase in aggregation. Cryoprotectants are...

Alpf Vat Does It Mean

Proglycogen Macroglycogen

Sucrose (a disaccharide) Fig. 1.7 Some simple sugars and disaccharides. Glucose and fructose are shown in their 'ring' form. Even this representation ignores the true three-dimensional structure, which is 'chair'-shaped if the middle part of the glucose ring is imagined flat, the left-hand end slopes down and the right-hand end up. Glucose forms a six-membered ring and is described as a pyranose fructose forms a five-membered ring and is described as a furanose. In solution the a- and P- forms are in equilibrium with each other and with a smaller amount of the straight-chain form. The orientation of the oxygen on carbon atom 1 becomes fixed when glucose forms links via this carbon to another sugar, as in sucrose a- and P-links then have quite different properties (e.g. cellulose vs starch or glycogen). Sucrose (a disaccharide) Fig. 1.7 Some simple sugars and disaccharides. Glucose and fructose are shown in their 'ring' form. Even this representation ignores the true three-dimensional...

Fermented Meat Products

Some yeasts, such as members of the genus Saccharomyces, ferment simple sugars to produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. These yeasts are found naturally on the skin of many fruits, and so it is not surprising that early humans learned to make alcoholic drinks. As many as 10 million yeast cells may be found on the dull waxy film or bloom that covers a single grape.

Tridimensional Dynamic Models of the Blood Brain Barrier Flow Based

Hollow Fibre Coculture

Several improvements in model design have allowed for better understanding and study of the central nervous system and neurological diseases. This model in particular has several advantages compared to mono- or bidimensional models, such as closely mimicking the conditions of pre-and postcapillary vessels in vivo, and allowing for experimental manipulations and reutilization of the device. In this model, high transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), low permeability to sucrose, and stereoselective transport also prevail. It is also possible to perform long-term studies (months), and the presence of drug extrusion mechanisms allows for meaningful drug permeation studies. However, there are obvious limitations to this model, including, but not limited to, lack of blood cells, no intraluminal pressure changes, and a lack of neuronal influences. Some of these issues have been addressed recently by Krizanac-Bengez and co-workers 10 .

Harvesting and Lysis of the Culture

Plasmids 15 kb in size are susceptible to damage during both cell lysis and subsequent handling. Gentle lysis is best accomplished by suspending the bacteria in an isosmotic solution of sucrose and treating them with lysozyme and EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), which removes much of the cell wall. The resulting spheroplasts are lysed by adding an anionic detergent such as SDS. For methods for tender handling of large DNAs, please see the information panel on MINIMIZING DAMAGE TO DNA MOLECULES in Chapter 2.

In Vitro Models Of Absence Epilepsy

Ferret thalamic slices can be obtained and studied using standard brain slicing and electrophysiologic recording techniques. Preparation includes decapitation of deeply anaesthetized (pentobarbital, 30-40mg kg intraperitoneally) male or female animals 3 months to 3 years old. Sagittal slices (400- mm thickness) from the forebrain of one hemisphere are prepared using a vibratome or vibroslicer. During preparation, tissue should be placed in a chilled solution in which NaCl is replaced with sucrose while maintaining an osmolarity of 305 mOsm. After preparation, slices are placed in an interface style recording chamber and allowed at least 2 hours to recover. The bathing solution contains (in mM) NaCl, 126 KCl, 2.5 MgSO4, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 1.25 CaCl2, 2 NaHCOs, 26 dextrose, 10. ApH of 7.4 is achieved by gassing the solution with 95 O2 and 5 CO2. Bathing of the slices in an equal mixture of normal NaCl and the sucrose-substituted solutions for the first 20 minutes in the recording chamber may...

Molecular Size Of Native Aspnat

Whether or not the large molecular size of native Asp-NAT was an artifact of the enzyme preparation methods was tested by using different homogenization and solubilization conditions. A buffer that is commonly used in mitochondrial protein purification (Tris-sucrose medium Tris-HCl, 50 mM 1 mM EDTA 0.32 M sucrose 1 mM DTT protease inhibitor cock-tail added according to the quantity of processed tissue pH adjusted to 7.4) was employed to obtain a crude mitochondrial pellet from rat brains. Various detergents were tested to solubilize the pellet deoxycholate (DC) (negatively charged and one of the most commonly used detergents in mitochondrial studies), hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (positively charged, commonly called CTAB), Triton X-100 (non-ionic), laurylmaltoside (LM) (non-ionic, commonly used in mitochondrial protein reconstitution experiments) and CHAPS. Crude mitochondrial pellets were obtained by homogenizing frozen rat brain tissue in the Tris-sucrose medium using a...

Carbohydrate type glycaemic response and weight control

It has been debated whether excess dietary carbohydrate can increase adipose stores. Although test animals are able to convert significant amounts of ingested carbohydrate into body fat, in humans, de novo lipogenesis from carbohydrate appears to be limited (Strawford et al., 2004). Despite this, excess dietary carbohydrate may indirectly increase body fat stores. Dietary carbohydrate, in the form of starch or sucrose, increases blood insulin levels,

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