Table 713

Some Uses of Annatto Extracts

Food Max. Levela

Emulsions containing less than 80% fat 30 mg/kg

Fruit-based spreads GMP

Cocoa and chocolate products 25 mg/kg

Confectionery products including hard and soft candy 25 mg/kg

Decorations, toppings (nonfruit), and sweet sauces 30 mg/kg

Precooked or dried pastas and noodles and like products 12 mg/kg

Ordinary bakery products GMP

Cakes, cookies, and pies 15 mg/kg

Fine bakery products (e.g., doughnuts and muffins) 40 mg/kg

Mixes for fine bakery wares (e.g., pancakes, cakes) 15 mg/kg

Processed meat, poultry, and game products in whole pieces or cuts 50 mg/kg Fermented non-heat-treated processed comminuted meat, poultry, and game products 50 mg/kg

Edible casings (e.g., sausage casings) 60 mg/kg

Frozen battered fish, fish fillets, and fish products, including mollusks, crustaceans, and 30 mg/kg echinoderms

Cooked fish and fish products 30 mg/kg

Cooked mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms 15 mg/kg

Fried fish and fish products, including mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms 15 mg/kg

Smoked, dried, fermented, and/or salted fish and fish products, including mollusks, 15 mg/kg crustaceans, and echinoderms

Semipreserved fish and fish products, including mollusks, crustaceans, and echinoderms 15 mg/kg

White and semiwhite sugar, fructose, glucose, xylose, sugar solutions and syrups, GMP inverted sugars, molasses, treacle, and sugar toppings

Other sugars and syrups (e.g., brown sugar, maple syrup) GMP

Herbs, spicing, seasonings, and condiments 30 mg/kg

Mustards 100 mg/kg*

Soups and broths 150 mg/kg*

Sauces and like products 100 mg/kg*

Food supplements GMP

Concentrate (liquid or solid) for fruit juice GMP

Ready-to-eat savories 300 mg/kg a Evaluated as total bixin or norbixin but the starred products (*) as bixin. GMP = good manufacturing practices.

Source: Adapted from JECFA (2001).110

1. Annatto

Annatto is the most widely used carotenoid extract, especially in dairy, bakery, and confectionery products (Table 7.13).110 In the United States, annatto is approved for use in general for coloring foods.111 Virtually any yellow to orange food product may be successfully colored with annatto. Oil-soluble preparations contain the

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