Table 712

Carotenoid Sources of Commercial Importance


Annatto (Bixa orellana)

Carotenes (vegetables: carrot, grass alfalfa, and vegetable oil) Dunaliella sp.

Marigold (Tagetes erecta)

Paprika (Capsicum annum)

Saffron (Crocus sativus)

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

Synthetic carotenoids



Bixin and norbixin


Haematococcus sp. Astaxanthin


Coloring foods, cosmetics, and textiles

ß-Carotene Feed additive

Lutein and zeaxanthin

Capsanthin and capsorubin

Crocetin and

Lycopene and ß-carotene

ß-Carotene, ß-apo-8'-carotenal, cantaxanthin

Feed and food additive and dietary supplement

Feed additive and as nutraceutical agent

As additive of poultry and fishery feed; purified oleoresin as food additive (e.g., pastas, vegetable oils, margarine, baking goods) in Europe

Used in foods to add flavor and color as a spice: e.g., pizza, salsa, meat, soups, sauces, salad dressings, snacks, processed cheese, confectionery, baked goods Foods, mainly specialties because of its high cost, and pharmaceutical products Tomato as food ingredient and lycopene preparations as a nutraceutical and food colorant As food and feed additives and nutraceuticals


Oil-soluble extracts (0.2 to 0.3%

of pigment) Oil suspensions (4% of pigment) Water-soluble extracts (around 5%)

Spray-dried products (up to 14%) Oleoresins

Solutions or suspensions in food-grade vegetable/plant oil and water-dispersible powders formulated using approved food additives Solutions or suspensions, water-or oil-dispersible presentations, freeze-dried products Dried flower petals, oleoresin, and purified oleoresin

Paprika powder and oleoresin

Saffron powders and extracts

Different tomato presentations

Water-dispersible products, colloidal suspensions, oily solutions

Source: Adapted from Francis (1999).109

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