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Characteristics of Tartrazine (E102) Colorant and Its Uses in Food Industry

CAS No. 12225-21-7

Chemical name(s) 5-Oxo-1-(p-sulfophenyl)-4-[(p-sulfophenyl) azo]-2-pyrazoloine-3-carboxylic acid

Synonyms C.I. 19140:1; C.I. food yellow 4; C.I. pigment yellow 100

Physical data Bright orange-yellow powder; freely soluble in water; the aqueous solution is not changed by HCl but becomes redder with sodium hydroxide

Uses Gelatin desserts, dairy-based desserts (ice cream and frozen desserts), beverages, dry powdered drinks, candy and confectionery products that are oil and fat free, bakery products, cereals, puddings, fruit-based desserts, fruit fillings for pastries, dried vegetables, fermented vegetable products, precooked or dried pastas and noodles, egg-based desserts (e.g., custards), sugars and table top sweeteners, water-based flavored drinks, beverage whiteners and snacks, among others

CAS = chemical abstracts registry number.

Source: Adapted from JECFA (1992; 2000).23-24

Tartrazine (E102) is a monoazo compound with a pyrazolone ring and properties as shown in Table 5.6.2324 Its approval for use by the food industry was in 1969.6

Tartrazine production involves two stages: (1) the condensation of phenylhydra-zine p-sulfonic acid with sodium ethyl oxalacetate and (2) coupling the product with diazotized sulfanilic acid:2227

Stage 1:

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