1. Harborne, J.B. and R.J. Grayer. 1988. The anthocyanins, in The Flavonoids. J.B. Harborne, Ed. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 1-20.

2. Brouillard, R., O. Dangle, J.P. Biolley, and N. Chirol. 1993. Polyphenols and pigmentation in plants, in Polyphenolic Phenomena. A. Scalbert, Ed. INRA, Paris, pp. 41-47.

3. Francis, F.J. 1989. Food colorants: anthocyanins. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 28: 273-314.

4. Jackman, R.L. and J.L. Smith. 1996. Anthocyanins and betalains, in Natural Food Colorants. G.A.F. Hendry and J.D. Houghton, Eds. Chapman & Hall, New York, pp. 244-310.

5. Figueiredo, P., M. Elhabiri, K. Toki, N. Saito, O. Dangles, and R. Brouillard. 1996. New aspects of anthocyanin complexation, intramolecular copigmentation as a means for colour loss? Phytochemistry 41: 301-308.

6. Gonnet, J.F. 1999. Colour effects of co-pigmentation of anthocyanins revisited. II. A colorimetric look at the solutions of cyanin co-pigmented by rutin using the CIELAB scale. Food Chemistry 66: 387-394.

7. Saito, K., M. Kobayashi, Z. Gong, Y. Tanaka, and M. Yamazaki. 1999. Direct evidence for anthocyanin synthase as a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase: molecular cloning and functional expression of cDNA from a red forma of Perilla frutescens. Plant Journal 17: 181-189.

8. Rose, A., W.E. Glabgen, W. Hopp, and H.U. Seitz. 1996. Purification and characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell-suspension cultures of Daucus carota L. Planta 198: 397-402.

9. Ju, Z., C. Liu, Y. Yuan, Y. Wang, and G. Liu. 1999. Coloration potential, anthocyanin accumulation, and enzyme activity in fruit of commercial apple cultivars and their F1 progeny. Scientia Horticulturae 79: 39-50.

10. Yamazaki, M., Z. Gong, M. Fukuchi-Mizutani, Y. Fukui, Y. Tanaka, T. Kusumi, and K. Saito. 1999. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a novel anthocyanin 5-O-glucosyltransferase by mRNA differential display for plant forms regarding anthocyanin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 7405-7411.

11. Yamaguchi, M.A., T. Maki, T. Ohishi, and I. Ino. 1995. Succinyl-coenzyme A: anthocyanidin 3-glucoside succinyltransferase in flowers of Centaurea cyanus. Phytochemistry 39: 311-313.

12. Ananboranich, S., P. Wulik, and R.K. Ibrahim. 1995. Flavonol sulfotransferase-like cDNA clone from Flaveria bidentis. Plant Physiology 107: 1019-1020.

13. Forkmann, G. 1993. New naturally occurring plant polyphenols, in Polyphenolic Phenomena. A. Scalbert, Ed. INRA, Paris, pp. 65-71.

14. Holton, T.A. and E.C. Cornish. 1995. Genetics and biochemistry of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Plant Cell 7: 1071-1083.

15. Nozue, M., H. Kubo, M. Nishimura, and H. Yasuda. 1995. Detection and characterization of a vacuolar protein (VP-24) in anthocyanin-producing cells of sweet potato in suspension culture. Plant Cell Physiology 36: 883-889.

16. Mol, J.N.M. 1993. Molecular biology of anthocyanin biosynthesis, in Polyphenolic Phenomena. A. Scalbert, Ed. INRA, Paris, pp. 87-98.

17. Delgado-Vargas, F., A.R. Jiménez, and O. Paredes-López. 2000. Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains — characteristics, biosynthesis, processing and stability. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 40: 173-289.

Mol, J., G. Jenkins, E. Schaefer, and D. Weiss. 1996. Signal perception, transduction, and gene expression involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 15: 525-557.

Dooner, H.K. and T.P. Robbins. 1991. Genetic and developmental control of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Annual Review of Genetics 25: 173-199. van der Biezen, E.A., B.F. Brandwagt, W. van Leeuwen, H.J.J. Nijkamp, and J. Hille. 1996. Identification and isolation of the FEEBLY gene from tomato by transposon tagging. Molecular General Genetics 251: 267-280.

Elomaa, P., Y. Helariutaa, R.J. Griesbach, M. Kotilainen, P. Seppanen, and T.H. Teeri. 1995. Transgene inactivation in Petunia hybrida is influenced by the properties of the foreign gene. Molecular General Genetics 248: 649-656. Albert, S., M. Delseney, and M. Devic. 1997. BANYLUS, a novel negative regulator of flavonoid biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis seed coat. Plant Journal 11: 289-299. Christie, P.J., M.R. Alfenito, and V. Walbot. 1994. Impact of low-temperature stress on general phenylpropanoid and anthocyanin pathways: enhancement of transcript abundance and anthocyanin pigmentation in maize seedlings. Planta 194: 541-549. Slivartz, M., A. Borochov, and D. Weiss. 1997. Low temperature enhances petunia flower pigmentation and induces chalcone synthase gene expression. Physiologia Plantarum 99: 67-72.

Gong, Z., M. Yamazaki, M. Sugiyama, Y. Tanaka, and K. Saito. 1997. Cloning and molecular analysis of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and expressed in a forma-specific manner in Perilla frutescens. Plant Molecular Biology 35: 915-927.

Moalem-Beno, D., G. Tamari, Y. Leitner-Dagan, A. Borochov, and D. Weiss. 1997. Sugar-dependent gibberelin-induced chalcone synthase gene expression in petunia corollas. Plant Physiology 113: 419-424.

Weiss, D. 2000. Regulation of flower pigmentation and growth: multiple signaling pathways control anthocyanin synthesis in expanding petals. Physiologia Plantarum 110: 152-157.

Deikman, J. and P.E. Hammer. 1995. Induction of anthocyanin accumulation by cytokinins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology 108: 47-57. Marrs, K.A., M.R. Alfenito, A.M. Lloyd, and V. Walbot. 1995. A glutathione-S-transferase involved in vacuolar transfer encoded by the maize gene Bronze-2. Nature 375: 397-400.

Holton, T.A., F. Brugliera, D.R. Lester, Y. Tanaka, C.D. Hyland, J. G.T. Menting, C.Y. Lu, E. Farcy, T.W. Stevenson, and E.C. Cornish. 1993. Cloning and expression of cytochrome P450 genes controlling flower colour. Nature 366: 276-279. Jorgensen, R., P.D. Cluster, J. English, Q. Que, and C.A. Napoli. 1996. Chalcone synthase cosuppression phenotypes in petunia flowers: comparison of sense vs. antisense constructs and single-copy vs. complex T-DNA. Plant Molecular Biology 31: 957-973.

Cooper-Driver, G.A. 2001. Contributions of Jeffrey Harborne and co-workers to the study of anthocyanins. Phytochemistry 56: 229-236.

Harborne, J.B. 1988. The flavonoids: recent advances, in Plant Pigments. T.W. Goodwin, Ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 298-343.

Leng, P., H. Itamura, H. Yamamura, and X.M. Deng. 2000. Anthocyanin accumulation in apple and peach shoots during cold acclimation. Scientia Horticulturae 83: 43-50. Boyles, M.J. and R.E. Wrolstad. 1993. Anthocyanin composition of red raspberry juice: influences of cultivar, processing, and environmental factors. Journal of Food Science 58: 1135-1141.

36. van Gorsel, H., C. Li, E.L. Kerbel, M. Smits, and A.A. Kader. 1992. Compositional characterization of prune juice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40: 784-789.

37. Garcia-Viguera, C., P. Zafrilla, and F.A. Tomas-Barberan. 1997. Determination of authenticity of fruit jams by HPLC analysis of anthocyanins. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 73: 207-213.

38. Berente, B., D. de la Calle-Garcia, M. Reichenbacher, and K. Danze. 2000. Method development for the determination of anthocyanins in red wines by high-performance liquid chromatography and classification of German red wines by means of multivariate statistical methods. Journal of Chromatography 871: 95-103.

39. Harborne, J.B. 1993. New naturally occurring plant polyphenols, in Polyphenolic Phenomena. A. Scalbert, Ed. INRA, Paris, pp. 9-21.

40. Bridle, P. and C.F. Timberlake. 1997. Anthocyanins as natural food colour-selected aspects. Food Chemistry 58: 103-109.

41. Gao, L. and G. Mazza. 1996. Extraction of anthocyanin pigments from purple sunflower hulls. Journal of Food Science 61: 600-603.

42. Froytlog, C., R. Slimestad, and O.M. Andersen. 1998. Combination of chromatographic techniques for the preparative isolation of anthocyanins — applied on blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) fruits. Journal of Chromatography 825: 89-95.

43. Wang, J. and P. Sporns. 1999. Analysis of anthocyanins in red wine and fruit juice using MALDI-MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 2009-2015.

44. Merlin, J.C., A. Statoua, J.P. Cornard, M. Saidi-Idrissi, and R. Brouillard. 1994. Resonance RAMAN spectroscopic studies of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins in aqueous solutions. Phytochemistry 35: 227-232.

45. Baldi, A., A. Romani, N. Mulinacci, F.F. Vincierti, and B. Casetta. 1995. HPLC/MS application to anthocyanins of Vitis vinifera L. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43: 2104-2109.

46. Moore, P.P. 1997. Estimation of anthocyanin concentration from color meter measurements of red raspberry fruit. HortScience 32: 135.

47. FDA. 1999. Summary of Color Additives Listed for Use in the United States in Foods, Drugs, Cosmetics, and Medicinal Devices. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.

48. JECFA. 2000. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization, Beijing, China.

49. JECFA. 2001. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

50. Raodriguez-Saona, L.E., M.M. Giusti, R.W. Durst, and R.E. Wrolstad. 2001. Development and process optimization of red radish concentrate extract as potential natural red colorant. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 25: 165-182.

51. Cabrita, L., T. Fossen, and M.A. Oyvind. 2000. Colour and stability of the six common anthocyanidin 3-glucosides in aqueous solutions. Food Chemistry 68: 101-107.

52. Giusti, M.M., L.E. Rodriguez-Saona, and R.E. Wrolstad. 1999. Molar absorptivity and color characteristics of acylated and non-acylated pelargonidin-based anthocya-nins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 4631-4637.

53. Redus, M., D.C. Baker, and D.K. Dougall. 1999. Rate and equilibrium constants for the dehydration and deprotonation reactions of some monoacylated and glycosylated cyanidin derivatives. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 3449-3454.

54. Bakker, J. and C.F. Timberlake. 1997. Isolation, identification, and characterization of new color-stable anthocyanins occurring in some red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45: 35-43.

Dougall, D.K., D.C. Baker, E. Gakh, and M. Redus. 1997. Biosynthesis and stability of monoacylated anthocyanins. Food Technology 51: 69-71.

Mazza, G. and L. Gao. 1994. Malonylated anthocyanins in purple sunflower seeds. Phytochemistry 35: 237-239.

Inami, O., I. Tamura, H. Kikuzaki, and N. Nakatani. 1996. Stability of anthocyanins of Sambucus canadensis and Sambucus nigra. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44: 3090-3096.

Giusti, M.M. and R.E. Wrolstad. 1996. Characterization of red radish anthocyanins. Journal of Food Science 61: 322-326.

Madhavi, D.L., S. Juthangkoon, K. Lewn, M.D. Berber-Jimenez, and M.A.L. Smith. 1996. Characterization of anthocyanins from Ajuga pyramidalis metalica crispa cell cultures. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44: 1170-1176. Johnston, T.V. and J.R. Morris. 1997. HPLC analysis of cabernet sauvignon and noble wine pigment fractions. Journal of Food Science 62: 684-687. Francia-Aricha, E.M., M.T. Guerra, J.C. Rivas-Gonzalo, and C. Santos-Buelga. 1997. New anthocyanin pigments formed after condensation with flavonols. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45: 2262-2266.

Gil, M.I., D.M. Holcroft, and A.A. Kader. 1997. Changes in strawberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols in response to carbon dioxide treatments. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45: 1662-1667.

Ju, Z. 1998. Fruit bagging, a useful method for studying anthocyanin synthesis and gene expression in apples. Scientia Horticulturae 77: 155-164. Fan, X., J.P. Mattheis, J.K. Fellman, and M.E. Patterson. 1997. Changes in jasmonic acid concentration during early development of apple fruit. Physiologia Plantarum 101: 328-332.

Wrolstod, R.E., G.L. Skrede, P. Lea, and G. Enersen. 1990. Influence of sugar on anthocyanin pigment stability in frozen strawberries. Journal of Food Science 55: 1064-1065, 1072.

Zhang, W., M. Seki, and S. Furusaki. 1997. Effect of temperature and its shift on growth and anthocyanin production in suspension cultures of strawberry cells. Plant Science 127: 207-214.

Ayed, N., H.L. Yu, and M. Lacroix. 1999. Improvement of anthocyanin yield and shelf-life extension of grape pomace by gamma irradiation. Food Research International 32: 539-543.

Rwabahizi, S. and R.E. Wrolstad. 1988. Effects of mold contamination and ultrafiltration on the color stability of strawberry juice and concentrate. Journal of Food Science 53: 857-861, 872.

Sarma, A.D., Y. Sreelakshmi, and R. Sharma. 1997. Antioxidant ability of anthocyanins against ascorbic acid oxidation. Phytochemistry 45: 671-674. Havkin-Frenkel, D., R. Dorn, and T. Leustek. 1997. Plant tissue culture for production of secondary metabolites. Food Technology 51: 56-61.

Zhang, W. and S. Furusaki. 1997. Regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in suspension cultures of strawberry cell by pH. Biotechnology Letters 19: 1057-1061. Singh, G. 1997. Reactor design for plant cell culture of food ingredients and additives. Food Technology 51: 62-66.

Vogelien, D.L., G. Hrazdina, S. Reeves, and D.K. Dougall. 1990. Phenotypic differences in anthocyanin accumulation among clonally related cultured cells of carrot. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Cultures 22: 213-222.

74. Zhong, J.J., T. Seki, S.I. Kinoshita, and T. Yoshida. 1991. Effect of light irradiation on anthocyanin production by suspended culture of Perilla frutescens. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 38: 653-658.

75. Sato, K., M. Nakayama, and J.I. Shigeta. 1996. Culturing conditions affecting the production of anthocyanin in suspended cell cultures of strawberry. Plant Science 113: 91-98.

76. Callebaut, A., N. Terahara, M. de Haan, and M. Decleire. 1997. Stability of antho-cyanin composition in Ajuga reptans callus and cell suspension cultures. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 50: 195-201.

77. Sakamoto, K., K. Iida, K. Sawamura, K. Hajiro, Y. Asada, T. Yoshikawa, and T. Furuya. 1993. Effects of nutrients on anthocyanin production in cultured cells of Aralia cordata. Phytochemistry 33: 357-360.

78. Meyer, H.J. and J. van Staden. 1995. The in vitro production of an anthocyanin from callus cultures of Oxalis linearis. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 40: 55-58.

79. Kakegawa, K., J. Suda, M. Sugiyama, and A. Komamine. 1995. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell suspension cultures of Vitis in relation to cell division. Physiologia Plantarum 94: 661-666.

80. Mori, T. and M. Sakurai. 1994. Production of anthocyanin from strawberry cell suspension cultures: effects of sugar and nitrogen. Journal of Food Science 59: 588-593.

81. Sakurai, M., Y. Ozeki, and T. Mori. 1997. Induction of anthocyanin accumulation in rose suspension-cultured cells by conditioned medium of strawberry suspension cultures. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 50: 211-214.

82. Piatelli, M. 1976. Betalains, in Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments, Vol. I. T.W. Goodwin, Ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 560-596.

83. Piatelli, M. 1981. The betalains: structure, biosynthesis and chemical taxonomy, in The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. 17. E.E. Conn, Ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 557-575.

84. Strack, D., W. Steglich, and V. Wray. 1993. Betalains, in Methods in Plant Biochemistry, Vol. 8. E.E. Conn, Ed. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp. 421-450.

85. Piatelli, M. and L. Minale. 1964. Pigments of centrospermae. III. Distribution of betacyanins. Phytochemistry 3: 547-557.

86. Mabry, T.J., A. Taylor, and B.I. Turner. 1963. The betacyanins and their distribution. Phytochemistry 2: 61-64.

87. Böhm, H. and E. Rink. 1988. Betalains, in Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants. I.K. Vasil, Ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 449-463.

88. Hinz, U.G., J. Fivaz, P.A. Girod, and J.-P. Zyrd. 1997. The gene coding for the DOPA dioxygenase involved in betalain biosynthesis in Amanita muscaria and its regulation. Molecular General Genetics 256: 1-6.

89. Müeller, L.A., U. Hinz, M. Uze, C. Sautter, and J.P. Zryd. 1996. Complementation of betalain biosynthesis in P grandiflora by a fungal DOPA-dioxygenase. Experientia 522: A20.

90. Elliot, C.D. 1983. The pathway of betalain biosynthesis: effect of cytokinin on enzymatic oxidation and hydroxylation of tyrosine in Amaranthus tricolor seedlings. Physiologia Plantarum 59: 428-437.

91. Steiner, U., W. Schliemann, H. Böhm, and D. Strack. 1999. Tyrosinase involved in betalain biosynthesis of higher plants. Planta 208: 114-124.

92. Müeller, L.A., U. Hinz, and J.P. Zryd. 1997. The formation of betalamic acid and muscaflavin by recombinant DOPA-dioxygenase from Amanita. Phytochemistry 44: 567-569.

Terradas, F. and H. Willer. 1991. 2,3- and 4,5-secodopa, the biosynthesis intermediates generated from L-DOPA by an enzyme system extracted from the fly agaric, Amanita muscaria L., and their spontaneous conversion to muscaflavin and betalamic acid, respectively, and betalains. Helvetica Chimica Acta 74: 124-140. Girod, P.A. and J. Zryd. 1991. Secondary metabolism in cultured red beet (Beta vulgaris) cells: differential regulation of betaxanthin and betacyanin biosynthesis. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 25: 1-12.

Heuer, S., T. Vogth, H. Böhm, and D. Strack. 1996. Partial purification and characterization of UDP-glucose:betanidin 5-O- and 6-O-glucosyltransferases from cell suspension cultures of Doreotheanthus bellidiformis Burm, F.N.E. Br. Planta 199: 244-250.

Vogt, T., E. Zimmermann, R. Grimm, M. Meyer, and D. Strack. 1997. Are the characteristics of betanidin glucosyltransferases from cell-suspension cultures of Dor-otheanthus bellidiformis indicative of their phylogenetic relationship with flavonoid glucosyltransferases? Planta 203: 349-361.

Bokern, M., S. Heuer, and D. Strack. 1992. Hidroxycinnamic acid transferases in the biosynthesis of acylated betacyanins: purification and characterization from cell cultures of Chenopodium rubrum and occurrence in some other members of the Caryo-phyllales. Botanica Acta 105: 146-151.

Trezzini, G.F. and J.P. Zryd. 1991. Characterization of some natural and semisynthetic betaxanthins. Phytochemistry 30: 1901-1903.

Hempel, J. and H. Böhm. 1997. Betaxanthin pattern of hairy roots from Beta vulgaris var. Lutea and its alteration by feeding of amino acids. Phytochemistry 44: 847-852. Lashley, D. and R.C.A. Wile. 1979. A betacyanin decolorizing enzyme found in red beet tissue. Journal of Food Science 44: 1568-1569.

Shih, C.C. and R.C. Wiley. 1981. Betacyanin and betaxanthin decolorizing enzymes in the beet (Beta vulgaris L.) root. Journal of Food Science 47: 164—166, 172. Kumon, K., J. Sasaki, M. Sejima, Y. Takeuchi, and Y. Hayashi. 1990. Betacyanin-decolorizing enzymes from Phytolacca americana. Plant Cell Physiology 31: 233-240.

Im, J.S., K.L. Parkin, and J.H. von Elbe. 1990. Endogenous polyphenoloxidase activity associated with the "black ring" defect in canned beet (Beta vulgaris L.) root slices. Journal of Food Science 55: 1042-1059.

Parra, J.M. and R. Muñoz. 1997. An approach to the characterization of betanine oxidation catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 45: 2984-2988.

Zakharova, N.S., T.A. Petrova, V.D. Shcerbukhin, and V.K. Gins. 1995. Betacyanin and betalain oxidase in different Amaranthus species. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 31: 202-205.

Bianco-Colomas, J. and M. Hugues. 1990. Establishment and characterization of a betacyanin producing cell line of Amaranthus tricolor: inductive effects of light and cytokinin. Journal of Plant Physiology 136: 734-739.

Hirano, H. and A. Komamine. 1994. Correlation of betacyanin synthesis with cell division in cell suspension cultures of Phytolacca americana. Physiologia Plantarum 90: 239-245.

Joy, R.W., M. Sugiyama, H. Fukuda, and A. Komamine. 1995. Cloning and characterization of polyphenol oxidase cDNA of Phytolacca americana. Plant Physiology 107: 1083-1089.

109. Müeller, L.A., U. Hinz, M. Uzé, C. Sautter, and J.P. Zryd. 1997. Biochemical complementation of the betalain biosynthetic pathway in Portulaca grandiflora by a fungal 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine dioxygenase. Planta 203: 260-263.

110. Weiss, M.R. 1995. Floral color change: a widespread functional convergence. American Journal of Botany 82: 167-185.

111. Kolb, E., M. Haung, C. Janzowski, A. Vetter, and G. Eisenbrand. 1997. Potential nitrosamine formation and its prevention during biological denitrification of red beet juice. Food Chemical Toxicology 35: 219-224.

112. Kragh, K.M., J.E. Nielsen, K.K. Nielsen, S. Dreboldt, and J.D. Mikkelsen. 1995. Characterization and localization of new antifungal cysteine-rich proteins from Beta vulgaris. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 8: 424-434.

113. Bilyk, A. 1979. Extractive fractionation of betalains. Journal of Food Science 44: 1249-1251.

114. Powrie, W.D. and O. Fennema. 1963. Electrophoretic separation of beet pigments. Journal of Food Science 28: 214-216.

115. Bilyk, A. 1981. Thin-layer chromatography separation of beet pigments. Journal of Food Science 46: 298-299.

116. Steglich, W. and D. Strack. 1991. Betalains, in The Alkaloids, Vol. 39. A. Brossi, Ed. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, pp. 1-62.

117. Pourrat, A., B. Lejeune, A. Grand, and H. Pourrat. 1988. Betalains assay of fermented red beet root extract by high performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Food Science 53: 294-295.

118. Schwartz, S.J., B.E. Hildenbrand, and J.H. von Elbe. 1981. Comparison of spectro-photometric and HPLC methods of quantify betacyanins. Journal of Food Science 46: 286-297.

119. Stuppner, H. and R. Egger. 1996. Application of capillary zone electrophoresis to the analysis of betalains from Beta vulgaris. Journal of Chromatography 735: 409-413.

120. Mabry, T.J. and A.S. Dreiding. 1968. The betalains, in Recent Advances in Phytochem-istry. R. Mabry, E. Alston, and V.C. Runeckles, Eds. Appleton Century Crofts, New York, pp. 145-160.

121. Mabry, T.J. 1980. Betalains, in Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. Vol. 8, Secondary Plant Products. E.A. Bell and B.V. Charlwood, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 513-533.

122. Saguy, I., I.J. Kopelman, and S. Mizrahi. 1978. Computer-aided determination of beet pigments. Journal of Food Science 43: 124-127.

123. Ihl, M., C. Shene, E. Schevermann, and V. Bifani. 1994. Connection for pigment content through colour determination using tristimulus values in a green leafy vegetable, Swiss chard. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 66: 527-531.

124. Block, J.E., C.H. Amundson, and J.H. von Elbe. 1981. Energy requirement of beet colorant production. Journal of Food Processing Engineering 5: 67-75.

125. Cerezal, M.P., A.J. Pino, and Y. Salabarria. 1994. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) colorant stability in the form of a concentrated liquor. Tecnología Alimentaria 293: 7-16.

126. Cerezal, M.P. and L.D. Nuñez. 1996. Caracterización del colorante de remolacha roja (Beta vulgaris L.) en polvo. Alimentaria Enero-Febrero: 91-94.

127. Counsell, J. N., G.S. Jeffries, and C.J. Knewstubb. 1979. Some other natural colors and their applications, in Natural Colors for Foods and Other Uses. J.N. Counsell and J.A. Dunastable, Eds. Applied Science, London, pp. 122-151.

128. Huang, C. and J.H. von Elbe. 1987. Effect of pH on the degradation and regeneration of betanine. Journal of Food Science 52: 1689-1693.

Singer, J.W. and J.H. von Elbe. 1980. Degradation rates of vulgaxanthine-I. Journal of Food Science 45: 489-491.

Drdák, M. and M. Vallová. 1990. Kinetics of the thermal degradation of betanine. Die Nahrung 34: 307-310.

von Elbe, J.H., I. Maing, and C.H. Amundson. 1974. Color stability of betanin. Journal of Food Science 37: 932-934.

Huang, A.S. and J.H. von Elbe. 1985. Kinetics of the degradation and regeneration of betanine. Journal of Food Science 50: 1115-1120, 1129.

Cai, Y., M. Sun, and H. Corke. 1998. Colorant properties and stability of Amaranthus betacyanin pigments. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46: 4491-4495. Cohen, E. and I. Saguy. 1983. Effect of water activity and moisture content on the stability of beet powder pigments. Journal of Food Science 48: 703-707. von Elbe, J.H. 1987. Influence of water activity on pigment stability in food products, in Water Activity: Theory and Applications to Food. L.B. Rockland and L.R. Belichat, Eds. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 55-83.

Simon, P., M. Drdák, and R. Altamirano. 1993. Influence of water activity on the stability of betanin in various water/alcohol model systems. Food Chemistry 46: 155-158.

Cai, Y.Z. and H. Corke. 2000. Production and properties of spray-dried Amaranthus betacyanin pigments. Journal of Food Science 65: 1248-1252.

Attoe, E.L. and J.H. von Elbe. 1985. Oxygen involvement in betanine degradation:

effect of antioxidants. Journal of Food Science 50: 106-110.

Han, D., S.J. Kim, S.H. Kim, and D.M. Kim. 1998. Repeated regeneration of degraded red beet juice pigments in the presence of antioxidants. Journal of Food Science 63:

0 0

Post a comment