P

p-Coumaric, 171 p-Coumaryl-CoA, 171 Paprika, 143

as a source of feed and food colorants, carotenoids, 147 oleoresins, toxicology, 57 Para red, 71 Parietin, 31 Patent blue V, 72 Peanut, 272

Pelargonidin, 57, 174, 183, 184 Pelargonidin 3-glucoside, 184 Peonidin and malvidin 3-glucoside, 184 Perilla frutescens, 172-173, 174, 176 Perkin W.H., and synthetic colorants, 35, 70 Peroxidases, 94 Petunia hybrida, 172, 174, 176 Petunidin 3-glucosides, 184 Pharagmobasidiomycetidae, 31 Pharbitis nil, 282 Phenazines, 98, 104, 230 as antibiotic agents, 2 Phenolic acids, 264, 269 Phenoxazines, 2, 30, 98, 104 Phenylalanine, 171 Phenylpropanoid metabolism, 171 Phloroglucinol, 57, 269

Phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (pps), an enzyme that controls the isoprenoid pathway in E. coli, 134 Phosphorescence and fluorescence, 8-9 Photoprotection, 2 Photosynthesis, 2 Phycobilins, 102, 103, 193 Phycocyanins, 2, 102, 103

Phycoerythrin, 102, 103 Physical colors, 10-11 Phytoalexins, 95, 106, 118, 121 Phytochrome, 93-102 Phytoene, 122

Phytoene desaturase (PDS), 122, 125 Phytoene synthase, 122

a membranal protein, 128 and their cofactors, 128 Phytol, 221 Phytolaccaceae, 195 Phytosterols, 267 Pickles, 63 Pigments, 27-33

acute toxicological studies and LD50, 43, 53 and secondary metabolism, 28 and the activist movement of the 60's and 70's, 37

and toxicology, 56-59

antraquinones from insects as food additives,

245-247 application forms in foods, as nutraceuticals, 37, 276-291 classification as food colorants, 32 definition, 27

diazotization coupling, 70-71, 77 differences with dyes, 27 exempt colors and labelling, 42 factors in pigment selection, 32 factors to be considered in their selection, 32

functions, as food colorants, inorganics, synthetics, natural, 2 color, photosynthesis, protection, reproduction: 2 history of legislation, 37-42 in bacteria, 31 in fungi, 31 inorganic compounds as food colorants, 35, 63 lakes and their uses, 37-39 legislation and FDA as the regulatory authority, 37, 39

legislation and GRAS substances, 42 legislation and the 1960 amendments, 41 legislation and the 2000 FDA modification, 41 legislation and the Delaney Clause, 41 legislation and the mandatory certification (1936), 37

legislation and the Nutrition Labeling and

Education Act (1990), 42 legislation and the 1906 act, 37 legislation in the European Union (EU), 42 listing of color lakes (1938), 37 LOAEL, 43

NOAEL, 43

reasons to be used for foods, 35 redefinition (1960), 39 solubility of the synthetics, 85 synthetic colorants, certifiable pigments, 37, 72 and raw materials involved in their production, 74-75 and reactions involved in their production, 72-85

and the bleeding problem, 71 and the first synthetics like natural pigments, alizarine, indigo, 70-71

and their chemical classification, 76 and their legislation, 70-71 and their pH stability, 85 and their stability, 85 certifiable colorants, certiable pigments, 70-72

liquids, powders, paste, dispersions, 86 permitted as drugs and cosmetics colorants D&C red 9, D&C red 7, D&C orange 4, D&C orange 17, 72 the basic reactions in the production of azo colorants the bleeding problems and the appearance of lakes, 72

the history their colors and blending of them, 85 toxicological studies and the concern levels (1993), 42

toxicology and calculation of the ADI, 43, 53

toxicology and chronic studies, toxicology and safety or uncertainty factor, 43

toxicology, the basics, 42-53 Pinene, 269 Piper nigrum, 263 Ponceau 4R, 72

toxicology, 54 Ponceau SX, 71 Portulaca grandiflora, 192 Portulacaceae, 195 Portulaxanthin, 192, 210 Prebiotics, 5, 272 Prickly pear, 195 Primary colors, 15

Primay metabolism, substances of the, 27-28

Prior-sanctioned substances, 41 Prism, and the rainbow colors, 8 Proanthocyanidins, 269 Protamines, 270 Proteomics, 296

Pseudohypericin, 269 Psylium, 260 Pteridin, 98 Pterins, 2, 30, 97-98 Purines, 2, 30, 97 Purity, 13 Pyocyanine, 98 Pyrrol, 93

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