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methodological aspects, 3, 139-143 characterization and the UV-visible spectrophotometry, 141-142 characterization by MS spectroscopy, 143 chemical characterization, 138-143 nomenclature, 113 processing and stability, 151 -155 production,

E. col/ by metabolic engineering, 134 in bioreactors, 3, 153-157 using Dunal/ella spp., 146, 156-157 using the alga Haematococcus pluv/al/s, 156-157

using Xanthohyllomyces dendrorhous, 156-157

regulation of biosynthesis, 126-127

tissue-specific regulation, 126 saponification process, 140 separation process, 140-141 HPLC separation, 140 separation by column cromatography, 140 toxicology, 56 transgenic plants, 3

engineered tomato to produce P-carotene, 135-136

golden rice as a source of P-carotene, 136 Caryophyllales, 195, 199-200 Caryophyllene, 269-270 Celosia cristata, 208 Centrospermae, 199-200 Cereals, 4-5, 39 Certifiable colorants, 53-54 Chalcone isomerase, 172-173 Chenopodiaceae, 195 Chenopodium rubrum, 197, 210 Chile peppers, 5 Chitin, 270-271 Chitosan, 270-271 Chlorogenic, 171

Chlorophylls, 4, 28, 30-31, 93-95 as food colorants, 5, 231 commercial sources, 230 complexes with Zn and Cu, the Veri-Green process, 223, 229 reasons to be used as additives, 225 chlorophyll a, 221 chlorophyll b, 221 chlorphyllin, 57

processing and stability, 221-232 degradation, 223-230 degradation during kiwi processing, 230 effects of heating on stability, 230 extraction and purification, 230-231 loss of magnesium and the Blair process, 223

loss of phytyl, 223 processing of extracts, 231 production, distribution, and other basics, 221

stability and chlorophyllase activity, 223 stability and detergents, 229 spectroscopic characteristics,

Soret band, 93-94 structure, 221-222 toxicology, 57 Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 121, 136 Chlorella fusca, 121 Chroma, 14

Chromatic mechanisms, 24-25 Chromaticity coordinates, 15 (x, y, z), 23 (r, g, b), 23

Chromaticity values of the standard observer, 21

Chromaticness, 13

Chromophore, 27

Chronic study, 42

CIE system, the source of light, 15

Cinnamic, 171, 185-186

Cinnamomum cassia, 263

Cinnamon, 263

Clitoria ternatea, 282-283

Coal tar, 70-72

Cochineal, 4, 70

as carminic acid source, 245-246 carminic acid structure and properties, 246 commercial presentations, 246-247 extract, 58

history and uses of pigments, 245 legislation, 247 pigment preparation, 246-247 pigment stability, 246-247 pigments as food additives, 247 Cochineal red A, toxicology, 55 Color, a physiological response, 7 and light, 11-12

as a physical phenomena, 1, 7, 11 cookie fillings, 39 definition, 7

elements involved: light, object, observer, 1 food quality and safety, 35 gamut, 17

human perception, 11 -12 measurement a mixture of science and art, 25-26

achromatic colors, 24

and colorless object, 7

and its atributes, 13

and light, 7-11

and saturation, 13

and the object characteristics, 10-11 black and opaque objects, 7 CIE system, 15-23

CIE system and the observation conditions,

15 -17 CIELUV system, 25 instrumentation and light, 14 Lovibond tinctometer, 13 neural response, 11 opponent-type systems, 23-26 opponent-type systems, the Hunter system, 25

spectrophotometric methods, 14 the CIE L*, a*, b* (1976), 25 the CIE x, y, z (1931), 23-24 the expert-based technology, 25 the Maxwell disk, 13 the Munsell system, 13-14 the object, 19

the opponent-type system, the Hering proposal (1964), 24-25 the Ridwgway and the Ostwald color system, 13 the trichromathic generalization, 15 visual evaluation, 1 Colorants, 27

Colorimetry, and photoelectric instruments, 14—15 Cone receptors, red (R), green (G), blue (B), 12-13 Cones, 12-13

and color vision, 12 the fovea region, 12 Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), 271 -272 Connexin 278

Copigmentation phenomenon, 3, 170, 180, 187

Copper arsenite, 63

Copper sulfate, 35, 63

Coumarins, 262

Coupling reaction, 70, 77

Crocus sativus L., 147-148, 249

Cruciferous vegetables, 5, 266

Cryptoxanthin, 113, 126, 137

Cyanidin-3-glucoside, 177

Cyanidin, 57, 174, 184-187

Cyanidin-3-glucoside, 176, 177, 184

Cyanidin-3-rutinoside, 282

e-Cyclase, 126-127

Cytochromes, 2, 14

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