FD&C = certifiable colorants permitted to be used for foods, drugs, and cosmetics; N.S. = not soluble. a Stability was evaluated during 1 week; B = bluer; S.B. = slightly bluer; H.B. = highly bluer. Source: Adapted from Spectra Colors Corp. (2001).30

6. Lakes

Food producers are also able to use certified FD&C lakes. The FDA considers these "straight colors," which means they are subject to certification and must be prepared from substances that have been previously certified. All FD&C lakes are provisionally listed with the exception of FD&C red No. 40 aluminum lake. Lakes are insoluble materials, in contrast to dyes, which impart their colors by dispersion. Lakes are prepared by extending the FD&C dye on a substratum of alumina. This process is carried out in two stages:3,22

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