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131, 132

TABLE 7.19 (continued)

Food Processing and Carotenoid Stability

Food

Tanzanian vegetables

Beverages and margarines

Poultry feed pigmented with marigold oleoresin

Condition

Blanching (98°C/5 min), cooking (98°C/15, 30 or 60 min), and sun drying (25 ± 6°C)

Addition of tea polyphenols

Sunlight illumination

Conclusion Ref.

Blanching reduces the P-carotene level but 137 increases the a-carotene

Cooking enhances the carotenoids extracted and sun drying reduces the concentration of carotenoids

Thermal processing increases vitamin A activity

Gallocatechin is better to prevent 136

discoloration of P-carotene; it appears that the hydroxyl group in the 5' position is important for the free radical scavenging activity

Sun-exposed feed shows enhanced 108

pigmenting efficiency, associated with an isomerization process that increases the levels of the all-trans-lutein form

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