Contains Nitrogenous Substances

Contains Sulfite

Ionic Charge

Slightly negative


LMW fraction has the compounds glucose,

1,6-anhydroglucose, and 5-HMF Compatible with beverages of high alcohol content such as whiskey and cordials Negative 78-90% of solids are in the LMW fraction and three of the compounds are glucose, 1,6-anhydroglucose, and 5-HMF; LMW fraction has a particularly strong UV absorbance, characteristic of this caramel The least used caramel color Compatible with products of high alcohol content, especially those containing vegetable extracts or flavorings such as liqueurs

Positive The nitrogenous compounds 4-

methylimidazol (4-MeI) and THI Compatible with nonacidic products such as beer, bakery goods, and confectioneries Negative Over 80% of the color intensity is recovered in the HMW fraction Most of the solids, nitrogen, sulfur, and UV absorbance is recovered in the LMW fraction; compounds of this fraction are disaccharides, glucose, 1,6-anhydroglucose, laevulinic acid, and 5-HMF It has good emulsifying properties, compatible with soft drinks and other beverages of low pH

a LMW = low molecular weight; HMW = high molecular weight. LMW and HMW are fractions obtained by size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography.

5-HMF = 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural; 4-MeI = 4-methylimidazol.

Sources: Adapted from Licht et al. (1992)29 30 and Myers and Howell (1992).28

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