C

Cactaceae, 195, 199-200 Caffeic, 193, 195 Calcium carbonate, 63, 66 as whitening agent, chalk, chewing gum, toothpaste, feldespar, 66

direct, solvay soda, lime soda, as a secondary product of fertilizer production, 66

legislation and uses, limestone, marble sugar confectionary, 66 the manufacturing processes, Camptothecin, 118 Canola, 3

Canthaxanthin, 56, 279 Cape jasmine fruit, 249 Capsanthin, 122, 124, 125, 132-133 Capsanthin capsorubin synthase (CCS), 122, 124,

125, 137-138, 147, 151 Capsicum annuum, 280 Capsicum spp., 122 Capsolutein, 151

Capsorubin, 122, 124, 125, 132, 133, 137-138, 151 Caramels, 4, 57-58, 232, 239

ammonia type and neurotoxicity, 234, 236 as food additives, 234-237 classes of, 234 caramel I, 57-58 caramel II, 57-58 caramel III, 57-58 caramel IV, 57-58 color characteristics, 233-235 compatibility, 234

darkening prevention of foods, 234-235 definition, 232-233

food adulteration, 237-239 OJO

preparation of diet cola beverages, 234-237 soft drinks adulteration, 237-239 whisky adulteration, 237-239 functional properties, 233-234 preparation, 233-234 stability, 234 toxicology, 57-58 Carbon black, as coloring agent for sugar confectionary, 64-65

Carmine, and carminic acid, 245-247 as food colorants, 4 toxicology, 58 Carmoisine, 72 Carnosic acid, 263 Carnosol, 263

Carotenes, 113-117, 140-141, 146, 148-149, 276-277

P-Carotene, 3, 122, 126, 133, 136-137, 140-143, 146, 148-149, 150, 151, 153, 276-277 and color vision, 12 toxicology, 57 P, P-Carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase, 133 8-Carotene, 123-124, 127 P-apo-8'-Carotenoic acid, 56, 149 Carotenoids, 3, 28, 30-31, 56, 113

as food colorants, 3, 143-157, 276-277

canning and isomerizatioin, 151, 154-155 chromogenesis during carrot drying and isomerization, 151-153 marigold and egg and broiler pigmentation,

153 storage, 151 biosynthesis, 118-126

and a cis-isomeric pathway in Arum italicum, 126 and a cryptic branch in Rhodospirillum rubrum, 126 and complexing with proteins, 132-133 and cyclization reactions, 122-125 and desaturation reactions to lycopene, 122-123

and epoxyxanthophyll production, 125 and hydroxylation reactions, 125 and phytoene production, 122 and production of ABA, 125 and production of Geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate, 121-122 and the 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate pathway, 118-121 and the substrates of geranyl geranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 122

and the use of mutants, 126-127 carotenoid binding protein (CBP), 278 carotenoid hydroxylases, characteristics, 125

genes in several bacterial and fungi are in clusters, 127 hydroxylases and production of epoxycarotenoids, 130-131 in bacteria, 121-122

in bacteria and the complementation assay, 133

in Eukaryotes. See Mevalonate pathway: 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-phosphate-pathway mevalonate pathway, 118-122 molecular biology as biotechnological tool for production, 133-136 non-mevalonate pathway, 3 vitamin A, 134-136 P-Carotene, Lutein, Violaxanthin, Neoxanthin, 113

c/s-P-Carotene, 126 cis-Neoxanthin, 151 c/s-Violaxanthin, 151 c/s-Xanthoxin, 125 classification, 113 definition and structure, 113 distribution, 3, 113-117 extraction process, 139-140 and enzyme treatment, 140 and supercritical fluid extraction, 140 with organic solvents, 140 functions, as antioxidants, 137 in fungi, 117 in leaves, 113

in mating and cell-to-cell recognition,

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