Make Your Own Fertilizer

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas

In this information you will find recipes and techniques that work to: Protect your house and lawn with special indoor and outdoor Shock Treatments: Ants, Snails, Slugs, Roaches, Fleas, Earwigs, Cockroaches, Silverfish, Beetles, Termites and Webworms. Say good-bye to those annoying yellow spots. Learn the secret to keep your grass greener in water restricted areas and in hot weather. Treat your lawn with a deworming concoction. (learn how and why you must do it once a year) Use effective Natural Insecticides (it's now time to learn what they are and how to use them. in the years to come, only natural insecticides will be permitted by cities!) Avoid serious plant, pet and child health problems caused by toxic commercial products. Protect yourself and your family against the nile virus in 1 minute. Kill ants and destroy the entire colony in 3 days or less. Kill harmful insects while fertilizing your soils.

Fertilizers Home Made Formulas Summary


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C T De Rosa PhD H Hansen S Wilbur H R Pohl H A ElMasri M M Mumtaz

We live in a chemical world, and exposure to xenobiotics is a fact of life. Humans are exposed daily to a variety of chemicals including but not limited to large categories of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, household products, and food additives. Chemical exposures can be intentional or unintentional, to a single chemical or to a mixture of chemicals. Exposures to environmental chemicals occur in populations living in inner cities near chemical manufacturing plants (1, 2) hazardous waste sites, and in the near field runoffs from fields and fertilizers (3). An overturned cargo train or transportation truck can spill chemicals in a pristine environment and become a source of pollution, contamination, and exposure, and eventually lead to an emergency response event. Exposures to environmental chemicals can affect humans, animals, and plants. Thus people of various interests and backgrounds are concerned about environmental exposures. Everyone carries a body burden of chemicals that range...

Private Efforts And Cooperation

Still, by the end of the century, half of the area's wetlands had been drained. Ninety percent of the wading birds had disappeared. Because salt concentrations had doubled in Florida Bay, sea grass and shrimp nurseries had died. Fertilizers from agricultural fields flowed along with the water, which poisoned many species and made fish dangerous to eat. Development had diverted so much water that many farmers and homeowners experienced shortages of groundwa-ter. And the melaleuca trees had become an invasive weed.

Introduction Urease And Its Biological Significance

In another context, soil urease, present both in living ureolytic bacteria 7 and as extracellular enzyme stabilized by aggregation with clays and humic substances 8,9 , degrades urea, a worldwide used soil nitrogen fertilizer 10 . Although necessary for crop nitrogen uptake, the efficiency of soil nitrogen fertilization with urea is severely decreased by the urease activity itself, and large amounts of ammonia nitrogen are lost in the atmosphere, while plant damage occurs by ammonia toxicity and soil pH increase, thereby causing significant environmental and economic problems.

Occupational Exposures

A number of studies have demonstrated positive associations between leukemia and farming, while other studies have found no elevated risk.108 However, an increased risk of leukemia has also been reported with exposure to certain chemicals used in farming including crop and animal insecticides, herbicides, and fertilizers.123-125

Drinking Water Treatment and Testing

Causative Agents

Smaller communities often use groundwater, pumped from a well, as a source of drinking water (figure 31.5). This water occurs in aquifers, water-containing layers of rock, sand, and gravel, that is replenished as water from various sources seeps through the soil. Because aquifers are not directly exposed to rain, animals, and the atmosphere, they are somewhat protected from contamination. However, poorly located or maintained septic tanks and sewer lines, as well as sludge or other fertilizer can lead to groundwater contamination. Figure 31.5 Groundwater The water in the aquifer is replenished as water from various sources seeps through the soil. Poorly located or maintained septic tanks and sewer lines, as well as sludge or other fertilizers, can lead to groundwater contamination. Figure 31.5 Groundwater The water in the aquifer is replenished as water from various sources seeps through the soil. Poorly located or maintained septic tanks and sewer lines, as well as sludge or other...

Organic farming sustainable agriculture and the modern agrofood system

A system of managing agricultural holdings that implies major restrictions on fertilizers and pesticides. The method of production is based on varied crop farming practices, is concerned with protecting the environment and seeks to promote sustainable agricultural development. It pursues a number of aims such as the production of quality agricultural products which contain no chemical residues, the development of environment-friendly production methods avoiding the use of artificial chemical pesticides and fertilizers, and the application of production techniques that restore and maintain soil fertility.

Asbestos General Aspects of Exposure

Evidence for asbestos carcinogenicity in humans comes from epidemiologic studies as well as from numerous clinical reports on workers exposed to asbestos in a variety of occupational settings.68,70 Most recently, tremolite asbestos exposure has been associated with an increased incidence of disease in vermiculite miners and millers from Libby, Montana. Vermiculite is a clay mineral used in concrete aggregate, fertilizer carriers, insulation, potting soil, and soil conditioners. The Libby mine opened in 1921 and at one point accounted for 80 of the world's vermiculite production. The Libby vermiculite deposit is unique in the sense that it contains an average amphibole asbestos content of 4 to 6 ,71 including tremolite and actinolite.69 Miners, millers, and some residents of Libby were exposed to high levels of asbestos-containing dust and developed nonmalignant respi

Biogeochemical Cycling and Energy Flow

Understanding the cycling of nutrients and the flow of energy is becoming increasingly important as the burgeoning human population impacts the environment in a major way. For example, industrial processes that convert nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia-containing fertilizers have increased food production substantially, but they have also altered the nitrogen cycle by increasing the amount of fixed nitrogen, such as ammonium and nitrate, in the environment. Pollution of lakes and coastal areas with these nutrients has far-reaching effects, including depletion of dissolved O2, which leads to the death of aquatic animals. It also decreases the biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Excavation and burning of coal, oil, and other carbon-rich fossil fuels provides energy for our daily activities, but releases additional CO2 and other carbon-containing gases into the atmosphere. Fossil fuels, the ancient remains of partially decomposed plants and animals, are nutrient reservoirs that are...


Looking at the results of classical selection breeding of hyperaccumulators compared with attempts to create transgenic hyperaccumulators, the former approach appears much more promising, for the following reasons. Research on the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation as summarized in Section 4.2 has revealed that this process involves many different steps in diverse parts of the plant. Therefore, to re-create a hyperaccumulator by genetic engineering, one would have to modify the expression of many genes, in a tissue-specific way. This has not been achieved, not even in an approximation, in any study so far. Unless someone finds a general 'switch gene' that leads to the changed expression pattern of all the other genes involved in hyperaccumulation, transgenic plants that really accumulate as much metal as hyperaccumulators will remain science fiction. In contrast, field trials have shown that the biomass of hyperaccumulators can be dramatically increased by addition of fertilizer, natural...

Phosphorus Cycle

When rocks erode, small amounts of phosphorus dissolve as phosphate, PO43 , in soil and water. Plants absorb phosphorus in the soil through their roots. Phosphorus is also added to soil and water when excess phosphorus is excreted in wastes from organisms and when organisms die and decompose. Some phosphorus applied to fields as fertilizer washes off the land into streams and groundwater.


The vast majority of MDS cases are primary that is, they have no known predisposing event. Epidemiological studies have reported weak associations between MDS and smoking, petroleum exposure, organic solvents, fertilizers, and arsenic and thallium. Inherited gene mutations (e.g. AML1 and NF1 see below) probably account for a very small number of cases. Studies of polymorphic gene variants are in progress but as yet no definitive associations have been reported. Some cases of MDS relate to previous treatment with chemotherapy, particularly alkylating agents or topoisomerase inhibitors these are the secondary MDS. In addition, MDS is seen following bone marrow transplantation for example, autologous bone marrow transplantation for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Oils Fats And Nuts

Unless they are organically grown and properly extracted, many oils contain toxins. Not only are the source crops grown with the liberal use of highly toxic pesticides and only slightly less toxic inorganic fertilizers, but the extraction processes typically employ high heat and a variety of toxic chemicals to produce the oils. The final products also have little remaining nutritive value due to the nature of the extraction process. Do not delude yourself into thinking that you are expanding your base of positive nutrition by including a wide variety of nonorganically produced oils in your foods or in their preparation.


Although patulin production in fruit is believed to occur mainly postharvest, several factors pertaining to the growing conditions of fruit trees may influence fungal infection and mycotoxin production in apples. Codex Alimentarius Commission 92 outlined good agricultural practices (GAPs) that may reduce the likelihood of infection of fruit trees. Trees should be trimmed of dead and diseased wood and mummified fruits and pruned to allow proper air flow and light penetration 92 . It has been demonstrated that fruit with mineral imbalances are more susceptible to infection by P. expansum and other fungal pathogens. Supplementing fruit trees with foliar calcium sprays during the growing season and use of minimal amounts of nitrogen fertilizer are some methods for reducing preharvest infection of apple fruit by fungi 95,98 . Calcium is believed to reduce decay by maintaining the firmness of cell walls during ripening 98,113 . Ammonium molybdate tetrahydrate has been studied as foliar and...

Algal Fibers

In parts of the far east algae have been used as vegetables in soups and salads since ancient times. In France they serve mainly as a source of iodine and fertilizer and as gelatinizing or texturing additives. Although eleven species of algae were recently accepted as vegetables by the French health authorities, their chemical composition and metabolism are poorly understood. Analysis of the fibers they contain nonetheless has illuminated the sources of their nutritional value.

Food Crops

Fertilizer Composting Many people are making their own fertilizer through a technique called composting. Compost is a type of organic fertilizer that is made from decayed plant matter. Compost improves the texture of soil and provides inorganic nutrients that plants need. For decades, experts have been predicting widespread food shortages due to the continuing increase in the world population. However, massive food shortages have not occurred mainly because of increased use of irrigation, fertilizers, and pesticides. Improvements in cultivars farm machinery food preservation techniques and methods of controlling diseases, weeds, and pests have also helped improve food production. Fertilizers supply plants with essential mineral nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. Pesticides are chemicals that kill undesirable organisms that harm crops, such as some insects.

Vehicle Transmission

Waterborne microorganisms that cause pathologies do not grow in pure water. They can survive in water with small amounts of nutrients but thrive in polluted water, such as water contaminated with fertilizer and sewage (which is rich in nutrients). Waterborne pathogens are usually transmitted in contaminated water supplies by either untreated or inadequately treated sewage. Indirect fecal-oral transmission of pathogens occurs when the disease-causing microorganism living in the fecal matter of one organism infects another organism. Bacterial pathogens infect the digestive system, causing gastrointestinal signs and symptoms. Examples of waterborne diseases are shigellosis and cholera.

Seed Germination

Some seeds germinate only after being exposed to extreme conditions. For example, animals often swallow the seeds of fruits they eat, as shown in Figure 30-13. Acids in the digestive system wear away the hard seed coat. The seeds may germinate after passing through the digestive systems of these animals. As an added bonus, the seed is deposited with a bit of natural fertilizer.

Vegetable Microflora

Coli Fruit Surface

The microflora on fresh fruits, grains, and vegetables can range from as low as 102 to 109 colony forming units (CFU) per gram 9,10 . On pickling cucumbers, for example, the aerobic microflora is typically between 104 to 106CFU ml for fresh fruit, with LAB less than 101CFU g 11 . In the absence of processing, degradative aerobic spoilage of plant material by mesophylic microorganisms occurs, with Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacter spp., and Erwinia spp. initiating the process 10 . A variety of pathogens, including Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Aeromonas hydrophylia, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and others, may be present on fresh vegetable products 12-15 . Pathogens on fruits and vegetables may also include enteric, hepatitis, or polio viruses 16 . A variety of sources may contribute to the occurrence of pathogenic bacteria on fruit and vegetable crops, including exposure of plants to untreated manure or...

Bacteria In Industry

Biologists have also learned to harness bacteria to recycle compounds in a process called bioremediation, which uses bacteria to break down pollutants. After an oil spill, as shown in Figure 23-13b, bioremediation workers can spray contaminated beaches with nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing fertilizers. These nutrients, along with the oil along the shoreline, aid the growth of naturally occurring prokaryotes that can break down the petroleum and use it as an energy source.


Cottonseed is the seed of the cotton plant. After extracting the oil, which is not allergenic, the seed is ground into meal, which may be used for animal feeds or fertilizer. Cottonseed meal and flour also are used in the baking industry for certain cakes, cookies, and pan-greasing compounds. Cotton linters are the short cotton fibers that adhere to the seeds after the cotton is ginned. These are separated and used for stuffing mattresses and furniture. Enough of the water-soluble cottonseed allergen adheres to these linters to render them allergenic (239). Several cases of angioedema, urticaria, or anaphylaxis have been reported in individuals who have eaten whole-grain bread or candy containing cottonseed meal (240,241). Coffee bean allergy is largely confined to those who handle the green beans commercially, including longshoremen who unload the sacks of beans from ships. Chlorogenic acid has been considered an allergen in green coffee beans, castor beans, and oranges. It is a...


Selenium content of foods depends on the extent of its presence in soil whether directly as plant food or indirectly as animal products when selenium levels are derived from feed. Sulfur content in commercial fertilizers inhibits plant absorption of the mineral. Refining, processing, and cooking of foods reduce selenium levels. High doses are toxic and no more than 300 mcg a day are recommended. Zinc content of foods depends on soil content. Chemical fertilizers impair its absorption into