Plain radiographs are an integral part of the routine assessment of any hip problem. Typically, an anteroposterior (AP) radiograph of the pelvis and frog lateral view of the affected hip represent the minimum radiographic assessment (Figure 3.25). The AP pelvis film is centered low over the hips, and this is used rather than just an AP of the affected hip for two reasons. First, it allows radiographic examination of closely related areas, including the sacrum, sacroiliac joints, ilium, ischium, and pubis (Figure 3.26). Second, it allows a comparison view of the contralateral hip to help assess subtle variations in the bony architecture. The frog lateral, while not a true lateral of the hip, does provide a good lateral view of the femoral head, often the area of most concern. Although a cross-table lateral represents a more true lateral radiograph

FIGURE 3.24. (A, B) An active straight leg raise, or especially a leg raise against resistance, generates compressive forces of multiple times body weight across the hip joint. Consequently, this is often painful, especially when there is even an mild degree of underlying degenerative disease.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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