External Fixation

Taking into account the extreme variety of devices that can be grouped into external axial fixation and external circular fixation, both the biologic process of fracture repair with abundant periosteal cells and the process of gap and contact healing type can be seen with external fixation.

New periosteal bone usually forms when less rigid fixation is applied, whereas bone healing of both the gap and the contact type can be observed if the external fixation device configuration is made more elastic [24,25].

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