Bone Fixation Elements

Since they first appeared, some compression-distraction systems, such as the Kalnberz system [6] and the Fischer system [37] have provided the possibility to use more than one kind of bone fixation element (screws, small wires). In the most commonly used system (Ilizarov system) the trend to use a mixed assembly has gradually asserted itself, especially after it became established in Western Europe and the USA.

Using screws has the disadvantage that the assembly is less elastic (probably reducing the capacity of adaptation to functional requests of the bone during the treatment, typical of the assemblies using small wires) and the advantage of an improved tolerability by the patient, thanks to the reduction of soft tissue transfixion.

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