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et al, 1994): limonene (26.7 per cent), piperitenone (24.9 per cent), geranial (20.8 per cent), caryophyllene (5.3 per cent), camphor (4.2 per cent), lippione (2) (4.0 per cent), methyleugenol (3.0 per cent) and y-bisabolene (3.1 per cent).

Plant material gathered at Lujan, also located in San Luis province contained (Duschatzky et al, 1998) lippione (2) (36.5 per cent), limonene (23.1 per cent), camphor (7.9 per cent), spathulenol (6.5 per cent) and eucarvone (4.3 per cent) while plants collected at an undisclosed location of Córdoba province (Zygadlo et al., 1995) afforded dihydrocarvone (17.9 per cent), myrcenone (17.2 per cent), camphor (10.2 per cent), limonene (10.1 per cent) and myrcene (7.0 per cent). The seasonal variation of the oil composition (Juliani et al., 1998) as well as its antifungal activity (Zygadlo and Grosso, 1995) have been reported. The effect of harvesting period on the essential oil composition of a taxon determined as Lippia aff. juneillana (Mold.) Tronc. collected in San Luis, Argentina (Duschatzky et al, 1999) has been examined. The percentage of the major constituents in the summer and winter harvest was respectively: limonene (26.8 and 19.9 per cent), trans-dihydrocarvone (16.0 and 0 per cent), lippione (2) (22.9 and 47.7 per cent), eucarvone (4.4 and 4.6 per cent), bicyclogermacrene (4.6 and 6.3 per cent) and camphor (8.1 and 0.2 per cent).

The flower oil of Lippia lycioides (Cham.) Steud. (syn. Aloysia grattissima (Gill. et Hook.) Tronc.) collected in Córdoba, Argentina showed a large amount of pulegone (Zygadlo et al., 1995) (65.8 per cent) together with dihydrocarvone (2.1 per cent), men-thone (2.0 per cent), limonene (3.6 per cent), a-thujone (1.1 per cent), ^-thujone (0.8 per cent), camphor (0.7 per cent) and spathulenol (2.1 per cent).

The essential oil of Lippia microphylla Cham. collected at an undisclosed location in north-eastern Brazil (Lemos etal, 1992) contained 1,8-cineole (36.4 per cent), terpinen-4-ol (10.2 per cent), a-terpineol (10.2 per cent), methylthymol (5.9 per cent), sabinene (4.8 per cent), y-terpinene (4.5 per cent), thymol (4.3 per cent), ^-caryophyllene (3.9 per cent), a-humulene (3.8 per cent), a-terpinolene (3.8 per cent), p-cymene (2.4 per cent), a-copaene (1.6 per cent) and myrcene (1.2 per cent) (Lemos etal., 1992).

Lippia micromera Schauer in DC. is known as orégano, orégano poleo, petit thyme, false thyme, small thyme or Spanish thyme. It is native to Colombia, Venezuela and the Caribean Islands, being cultivated in many countries of Tropical America for seasoning foods. Until 1993, the chemical information on this taxon was sparse and fragmented (Terblanché et al., 1996). Plants cultivated at Camden, Delaware using a stock from Saint Thomas, Virgin Islands (Tucker et al, 1993), yielded an oil dominated by carvacrol (26.5 per cent), y-terpinene (22.5 per cent), p-cimene (11.5 per cent) and thymol (7.1 per cent) together with carvacryl acetate (1.6 per cent), methylthymol (1.5 per cent), terpinen-4-ol (2.0 per cent), 1,8-cineole (2.2 per cent), a-terpinene (4.9 per cent), a-thujene (3.8 per cent) and myrcene (3.4 per cent) as minor significant components. Plants cultivated in Cuba (Pino etal, 1998) contained a higher amount of carvacrol (42.2 per cent) and lower content of y-terpinene (4.5 per cent) than the former as well as ^-caryophyllene (12.1 per cent), trans-a-bergamotene (9.3 per cent), caryophyllene oxide (9.0 per cent), p-cymene (7.2 per cent), a-humulene (4.0 per cent), terpinen-4-ol (3.1 per cent), eugenol (0.9 per cent), humulene epoxide II (1.4 per cent) and caryophylla-1(12), 7-dien-9-ol (1.1 per cent). The Cuban L. micromera is similar to the high-carvacrol forms of Mexican oregano (L. graveolans H.B.K) which has (Terblanché etal., 1996) 43.7-48.0 per cent carvacrol, 14.5-16.2 per cent p-cymene and 11.7-14.2 per cent y-terpinene but a lower carvacrol content than high-carvacrol forms of Turkish orégano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart) which has 58.7—60.7 per cent carvacrol, 11.5—13.0 per cent p-cymene and 8.1—14.2 per cent y-terpinene (Tucker and Maciarello, 1993).

Lippia oatesii Rolfe is an undershrub growing wild in the semi-dry middle and western parts of Zimbabwe. So far, only one paper on the essential oil of this plant has been published (Chagonda etal., 2000).The major constituents were: geranial (23.0—38.9 per cent), neral (18.1-28.5 per cent), p-cymene (6.8-25.7 per cent) and a-phellandrene (2.9-16.8) while limonene (1.7-3.7 per cent), ^-phellandrene (1.8-3.8 per cent) and y-terpinene (0.6-3.4 per cent) were notable minor components.

The composition ( Zygadlo et al, 1995) of the flower oil of Lippia polystachia (Gris.) Mold. and its antifungal activity (Zygadlo and Grosso, 1995) have been reported. Flowers of wild specimens collected at Colon Department, Córdoba province, Argentina yielded an oil containing a-thujone (41.1 per cent), carvone (10.0 per cent), limonene (5.6 per cent), camphor (3.0 per cent), myrcene (1.4 per cent), j6-thujone (0.9 per cent), lippifoli-1(6)-en-5-one (36) (1.0 per cent), sabinene (3.0 per cent) and a-pinene (0.9 per cent).

Lippia rugosa A. Chev. collected in Burkina Faso yielded an essential oil containing a fairly high amount of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (Menut etal, 1993). The main constituents were: ^-caryophyllene (25.7 per cent), elemol (23.2 per cent), epoxy-caryophyllene (8.1 per cent), a-phellandrene (3.2 per cent), trans-^-ocimene (2.9 per cent), y-eudesmol (2.8 per cent), a-eudesmol (2.2 per cent), ^-eudesmol (2.1 per cent), 1,8-cineole (1.7 per cent) and camphor (1.0 per cent).

Lippia sarvoryi Meikle, also gathered in Burkina Faso, yielded an oil rich in sesquiter-pene hydrocarbons (60 per cent) (Menut et al, 1993). The most significant components were: ^-caryophyllene (41.0 per cent), germacrene (isomer not identified) (14.1 per cent), 1,8-cineole (10.3 per cent), elemol (9.4 per cent), trans-^-ocimene (4.6 per cent), a-phellandrene (2.5 per cent), sabinene (2.1 per cent), a-humulene (2.0 per cent), a-eudesmol (1.3 per cent), j6-eudesmol (0.9 per cent), camphor (1.6 per cent), limonene (1.2 per cent) and y-eudesmol (0.8 per cent).

Lippia scaberrima Sond. is a shrub native to South Africa where it is used as a medicinal plant by various cultural groups. Only one paper on the composition of its essential oil has been published (Terblanché et al., 1998). Less than 40 per cent of the oil was identified. Flowerheads contained 1,8-cineole (23.1-33.6 per cent), camphor (0.2-3.1 per cent), a-phellandrene (0.3-1.5 per cent), ^-pinene (0.4-0.6 per cent), camphene (0-1.9 per cent) and linalool (0.2-0.3 per cent). The oil from leaves was void of 1,8-cineole and only a few minor constituents were identified: camphor (0.6-3.3 per cent), linalool (0.3-0.7 per cent), endo-borneol (1.6-4.8 per cent), camphene (0.3-1.4 per cent), ^-pinene (0.2-0.7 per cent), a-terpineol (0.2-0.4 per cent), trans-carveol (0-0.2 per cent), á-cadinene (0-0.2 per cent), limonene (0-6.1 per cent), a-pinene (0.1-0.6 per cent), myrcene (traces 0.2 per cent) and y-terpinene (traces 0.4 per cent).

Lippia sidoides Cham. is a wild aromatic shrub native to north-eastern Brazil used by the local people to prepare antiseptic remedies. Leaves collected near Mossoró in Rio Grande do Norte (De Abreu Matos etal., 1999) yielded 4.5 per cent oil very rich in thymol (73.1 per cent) with minor amounts of ^-caryophyllene (7.3 per cent), p-cymene (6.0 per cent), caryophyllene oxide (4.4 per cent), methythymol (2.2 per cent), 1,8-cineole (1.1 per cent), terpinen-4-ol (1.0 per cent), á-cadinene (0.6 per cent), aromadendrene (0.6 per cent), a-humulene (0.4 per cent), linalool (0.4 per cent) and myrcene (0.4 per cent).

Flowers of Lippia turbinata Griseb. collected at Colon Department, Córdoba province Argentina, gave an oil (Zygadlo etal., 1995) containing a-thujone (30.2 per cent), carvone (10.1 per cent), limonene (6.1 per cent), camphor (4.0 per cent), lippifoli-1(6)-en-5-one (36) (3.3 per cent), spathulenol (4.4 per cent) and bornyl acetate (1.2 per cent) as the most significant constituents. This oil was similar to the one obtained from leaves (Velasco Negueruela et al, 1993; Terblanché etal., 1996). On the other hand, the aerial parts of plants collected at Comechingones mountains, San Luis province Argentina, yielded an oil which differed from the previous ones (Velasco Negueruela etal., 1993; Zygadlo et al., 1995); in this case the major components being (Duschatzky et al., 1998) limonene (43.3 per cent), lippione (2) (24.8 per cent) and 1,8-cineole (14.7 per cent).

Leaves of Lippia wilmsii H.H.W. Pearson collected in Kenya gave 1.6 per cent essential oil containing piperitenone (12 per cent) in addition to the previously reported compounds (Terblanché etal., 1996).

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