Info

self pollination

high ess. oil yield

Disposal of the above data is geatly acknowledged to: D,F - Pank, BAZ

DK - B.F. Knudsen, Bot. Operations ApS

ISR - E. Putievsky, Neve Ya'ar

Notes

C, Carvacrol; T, Thymol; L, Linalool; CSH, cis-sabinene hydrate.

Disposal of the above data is geatly acknowledged to: D,F - Pank, BAZ

DK - B.F. Knudsen, Bot. Operations ApS

ISR - E. Putievsky, Neve Ya'ar

Notes

C, Carvacrol; T, Thymol; L, Linalool; CSH, cis-sabinene hydrate.

economic cultivation could still be possible by using vegetative propagation methods (stem cuttings or in vitro techniques), as shown by several clonal varieties.

Breeding of essential oil crops as e.g. Origanum sp. needs also several analytical methods. For the determination of the essential oil content usually distillation techniques are employed. Apart from microdistillation they have the disadvantages of using too much material and being time-consuming. A possible future method for a simple and fast determination of the essential oil content on only minor quantities (or even better in the field on living plants) could be by NIRS, a method successfully used to determine essential oil content in marjoram (Schulz, 1999).

The most common analytical methods used today for determining the essential oil composition are GC/MS (gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry), but also GC coupled with olfactorial tests (scent detectors), and head-space-techniques for the determination of genuine oils. The application of all these analytical methods makes breeding more time consuming and expensive and has to be taken in consideration when designing a breeding program for a new and up to now under-utilised crop.

Breeding results: Oregano varieties

A number of commercial varieties of oregano exists on the market, many of them used as horticultural crops, particularly ornamentals suited for rockeries (Table 7.1). Systematic genetic improvement of oregano and establishment of new cultivars has started, in addition, in the context of domestication and introduction as new crop. Systematic breeding programmes are known in the meantime from several mostly mediterranean countries using indigenous wild species as starting material. In Turkey, for instance, Origanum onites is the species mainly used, in Greece O. vulgare ssp. hirtum and O. X intercedens, whereas in Israel besides of O. vulgare ssp. hirtum especially O. syriacum ("Za'atar") is preferred and in France O. virens (Ceylan et al, 1996; Pasquier, 1997; Putievsky etal., 1997; Skoula and Kamenopoulos, 1997). According to an actual survey a number of varieties and cultivars of Origanum sp. have been bred and registered within the last years, compiled in Table 7.2.

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