Table

Summary of Some Human Pathogen-Plant Models and Observations Related to Attachment

Plant-human pathogen model

Lettuce-E.coli O157:H7 (pre- and postharvest)

Tomatoes-S. enterica

Apples-S. enterica Sprouts-S. enterica

Sprouts-E.coli O157:H7

Observations and conclusions

Attachment of human pathogen to edges/grooves of seed coat and root hairs Attachment to stomates and trichomes Cells concentrated at leaf epidermal cell junctions Aggregates on roots and leaves Strain differences in adherence Internalization (45 ^m below surface)

Attachment to roots, stems, leaves, flowers Attachment to stem scar > intact fruit skin Strain differences in survival and growth (adherence?) Viable cells isolated from stem scars up to 49 days after inoculation of fruit and at least 9 days after inoculation of roots Internalization; protection from sanitization

Attachment to stem, calyx, broken skin > intact skin Sanitization less effective when attached to stem, calyx, broken skin

Human pathogen and aerobic bacteria concentrate on damaged seeds Attachment to root hairs and edges of seed coats Tight attachment; hard to sanitize

Human pathogen attached better than 2 of 3 plant epiphytic species Internalization through emerging root hairs (endophytic?)

Minimal attachment to sprout tissue

Nonpathogenic E. coli isolated from cabbage attached to sprouts effectively

Grows well with nutrients in sprout irrigation water

Ref.

142-144, 212

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