Table 151

Seven Principles of HACCP

Principle 1 Conduct a hazard analysis. Construct a flow diagram of the steps of a process to determine where significant hazards exist and what control measures should be instituted

Principle 2 Determine critical control points (CCPs) required to control the identified hazards.

CCPs are any steps where hazards can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels

Principle 3 Establish critical limits (CLs). These are specifications (target values and tolerances)

that must be met to ensure that CCPs are under control Principle 4 Establish procedures to monitor CCPs. These are used to assess when a process must be adjusted to maintain CCP control Principle 5 Establish corrective actions to be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular

CCP is not under control Principle 6 Establish verification procedures for determining whether the HACCP program is working correctly

Principle 7 Establish documentation procedures concerning all activities with records appropriate to these principles and their application

From USDA-FSIS, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles and Application Guidelines, 1997 (

experience has shown that installation and implementation can take from six months to two years.

Today, there are numerous manufacturers promoting computer software programs, manuals, and services that can aid in the development of generic HACCP systems. While these models are useful tools to demonstrate how to create a HACCP plan, it must be emphasized that they should not be used "out of the box,'' as the generic HACCP plan may not be applicable for every facility, processing line, or product. Since each HACCP plan is process-specific, the plan must be tailored to address the unique aspects of the production, including processing and preparation operations, equipment being used, the foods being prepared, and the training of personnel [22].

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