S

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 511 Salmonella, 7, 89, 314, 390, 392, 427 acetic acid and, 424-425 acid stress and, 104-105 cell-cell interactions, 603-604 cell viability, 607 chlorine dioxide and, 412-413 detergent formulations and, 380 and efficacy of washers, 386 in fresh juices, 217-218 general stress response and, 97 high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) of, 503

in imported and domestic produce, 8, 9, 10 irradiation of, 508

in melons, 232, 233-234, 243-244, 549 membrane integrity, 606 microscopy of, 613

modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce and, 19, 453-454 oxidative stress, 106 ozone and, 415 preharvest stress and, 99

pulsed electric field (PEF) processing and, 511 spatial distribution, 600-601 in sprouts, 190, 195 superatmospheric O2 and, 440 surface pasteurization and, 481, 487 in tomatoes and apples, 54 USDA Microbiological Data Program (MDP) measurement of, 11 Sampling and study of microorganisms efficacy of decontamination treatments and, 558

efficiency of retrieval in, 557-558 importance of accurate, 543-545 inoculation procedures in, 556-557 media for, 546-548

number of samples analyzed and reporting of results in, 559-560 procedures for detection and enumeration,

558-559 for rapid detection, 566 selection of test strains for, 548-551 type of produce and preparation methods for, 551-556 Sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), 24, 201, 343, 349 for juice, 219-221 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, 527 Secretion system type II, 45 type III, 44-45 Se Thompson, 56

Shelf life of MAP produce, 450-451 Shigella, 7, 314

detergent formulations and, 380 in fresh-cut vegetables, 258-259 general stress response and, 97 high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) of, 504

in imported and domestic produce, 8, 9, 10

modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce and, 19, 453-454 Short-wave UV radiation and microbial stress, 101

SimPlate system, 570-571 Soft-rot, bacterial diversity of, 118-120 economic impact of, 117-118 enzymatic and molecular mechanism of tissue maceration by, 122-125 factors affecting survival of, 120-121

Soft-rot, bacterial (continued) farm practices for control of human pathogens and, 127-128 interactions between human pathogens and, 125-127

latent infection and internalization of, 121 pectate lyase (PL), 122-125 pectolytic Erwinia spp., 119 pectolytic fluorescent (PF) pseudomonad, 119-120

role of calcium ions in, 124-125 temperature and atmospheric conditions affecting, 121 two-component regulatory gene system and, 123-124

Soil amendments, 14, 26-27 associated pathogenic bacteria, 7 Solid phase extraction (SPE) methods, 285 Sorting, culling and trimming apples, 297

effectiveness of, 367-370 purpose of, 365 using grade standards, 366 Sources of contamination consumer handling of produce, 21 foodservice, restaurant, and retail food stores produce handling, 20-21 postharvest cold storage facility, 17-18 employee hygiene, 16 modified atmosphere packaging, 18-19 packaging material, 18 packinghouse equipment, 16-17 refrigerated transport, distribution, and cold storage, 19 wash and hydrocooling water, 17 production harvest operations, 15-16 irrigation water, 15 land use, 14 soil amendment, 14 wild and domestic animal, 14 Spatial distribution of bacteria, 600-602 Spiral plating method, 569 Spores, bacterial, 501-504, 506-508 Sprouts classification of, 187-188 E. coli in, 54-55, 188-190, 192, 195-197, 198, 200

foodborne illnesses associated with, 188-190 interventions irrigation water, 198-200

seed, 191-198 reducing risk of future outbreaks of foodborne illness in, 200-201 research on, 201-202 seeds biological interventions, 197-198 chemical and physical interventions, 191-197

Standard operating procedures (SOPs), 343, 349

Standard plate count method, 567-569 Staphylococcus aureus, 148-149, 314, 415,

440, 443 Statistical control charts, 348 Statistical process control (SPC) and HACCP control, 347-348 monitoring procedures, 354-356 Steam treatments, 241-242 Stereomicroscopy, fluorescence, 613 Stomata, 81-82 Storage apple, 299-300 cold, 17-18, 20 Stress acid, 104-105

adaptation and associated risks assessment, 107-108

adaptation phenomenon, 95-98 cold, 102-103 definition of, 95-96

microbial adaptation on produce, 106-107

minimal processing and, 106

osmotic, 98-99, 101-102

oxidative, 105-106

postharvest, 102

preharvest, 98-102

produce microbiota as influenced by,

98-106 regulation of, 97-98 response, adaptation and the general, 96-97

temperature fluctuation and, 99-100 ultraviolet radiation and, 100-101 Structures that enable internalization, 78-79

Superatmospheric O2, 440-441 Surface pasteurization with hot water, 480-483 with steam, 483-485

thermosafe process, 485-486 University of Bristol process, 486-487 vacuum-steam-vacuum (VSV) process, 488-493

ventilex continuous steam sterilizing system, 487-488 Synergistic interactions between soft-rot and human pathogens, 126 Synergistic treatment combinations in washing and sanitizing, 390-391 Synthetic polymer films, 442-443

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