Reproductive Toxicity and Teratogenicity Studies

Reproductive toxicity and teratogenicity studies in mice, rats, and chicken embryos indicate that patulin is a possible teratogen. Dailey et al. [8] reported no reproductive or teratogenic effects in mice or rats dosed with patulin at levels of up to 1.5mg/kg body weight/day. However, maternal toxicity and an increase in the frequency of fetal resorptions were observed at higher levels, which indicate that patulin was embryotoxic. When injected into the air cell of chick eggs, patulin was reported to be embryotoxic at levels of 2.35 to 68.7 mg/egg depending on the age of the embryos, and teratogenic at levels of 1 to 2 mg/egg [45]. Roll et al. [10] found that patulin, when administered intraperitoneally to female mice on day 12 and 13 of pregnancy, caused an increase in the incidence of cleft palates and malformation of the kidneys of the developing fetuses.

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