P

Packaging materials, 18. See also Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) antimicrobial film, 442-443 film permeability and, 441-442 for MAP produce systems, 441-444 mushroom, 148-149 Pantoea agglomerans, 238-239, 450, 604 Parameters, biological, 604-605 Parasites, pathogenic. See also

Cryptosporidium; Cyclospora high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP)

of, 505 irradiation of, 508 Pathatrix system, 578-579 Pathogenic parasites, 7 Pathogenic viruses, 7

Patulin approaches for controlling levels of,

293-300 characteristics of, 282-283 chemical, heat, and biological control of,

297-299 cold storage and, 299-300 environmental factors affecting, 292-293 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

(ELISA) of, 285 factors affecting production of, 290-293 fungal species producing, 288-289 gas chromatography (GC) of, 284 good agricultural practices (GAPs) and, 367 harvest production of, 295 irradiation treatments of, 297-299 liquid chromatography (LC) and, 284-285 mechanism of toxicity of, 288 methods of analysis of, 283-286 micellar electrokinetic capillary chromato-

graphy (MECC) of, 285 molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and, 285-286

natural occurrence in fruits and vegetables, 289-290

preharvest production of, 294-295 in processed apple products, 300 regulatory aspects of, 288 studies on acute toxicity, 286 carcinogenicity, 287 genotoxicity, 287 immunotoxicity, 286-287 reproductive toxicity and teratogenicity, 287

thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of,

283-284 toxicological effects of, 286-288 washing treatments to reduce, 296 Pectate lyase (PL), 122-125 Pectic enzymes, 122-125 Pectolytic erwinia spp., 119 Pectolytic fluorescent (PF) pseudomonads,

119-120 Pediococcus acidilactici, 446 Penicillium, 146, 286, 420, 450. See also Patulin expansum, 282-283, 289-292, 289-300, 530-531 Peppers, 466-467 Peroxyacetic acid, 382-383 Petrifilm, 570 Phylloplane, 36-37 Pichia, 525, 527

Pili, 43

Plants. See also Produce anatomy and biochemistry of roots and leaves on, 35-37 attachment of pathogenic bacteria on, 38-48 bacterial gene expression in situ on, 608-612 crop cultivars, 89 development, 85-86 fungi and viruses on, 48 interactions between microorganisms and tissues of, 259-262 -microbe biofilms, 59 microbial flora of, 37-38 potential attachment factors of enteric bacterial pathogens for, 48-52 vegetation and survival of soft-rot bacteria, 120

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays,

272-273, 584-588 Polyscyalum pustulans, 465 Postharvest produce biocontrol applications, 524-525, 528-529 contamination of, 5-6, 16-19, 88 factors contributing to contamination of,

146-147, 234-235 patulin production in, 295-300 practices to suppress spoilage of, 147-152 stress, 102 Preharvest produce biocontrol applications, 525-526 factors contributing to contamination in,

13-16, 234-235 patulin production in, 294-295 practices in growing mushrooms, 136-137 stress, 98-102 Pressure-driven infiltration of produce, 84-85 Prevention and intervention, contamination current good manufacturing practices

(cGMPs), 23-24 effective management strategies, 21-22 good agricultural practices (GAPs), 6, 21-22

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), 24-25 Process capability analyses in HACCP, 351-354

Processing, minimal, 106, 316-318 Process of internalization, 80 Produce. See also Plants; Postharvest produce; Preharvest produce; individual fruits and vegetables associated foodborne illness traceback investigations, 12-13

attachment of human enteric pathogens to, 52-59

contamination of, 5-7, 13-21 domestic, 9-10 grade standards, 366 health benefit of consuming, 4 imported, 8-9

increase in production of, 117-118 inoculation of, 556-557 postproduction handling of, 5-6, 16-19, 88 probability of contracting foodborne illnesses via, 4-5, 6-7 vegetable biocontrol in minimally processed,

316-318 microflora, 314-318 Pseudomonas, 46-47, 49, 314, 450 biocontrol of, 525, 527 carbon dioxide and, 439 cell viability of, 605, 607 gene expression of, 608 microscopy of, 613

modified atmosphere packaging and, 455 O2/CO2 absorbers and generators and, 447 ozone and, 382, 415 soft-rot by, 123-125 superatmospheric O2 and, 440 tolaasii, 141, 146, 148 Psychotrophic pathogens, 452-453 Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing, 509-512

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