In response to a series of juice-associated outbreaks, the FDA published its final rule on January 19, 2001 requiring the application of HACCP to juice production . The rule became effective January 22, 2002 for large businesses. For small and very small businesses effective dates were January 21, 2003 and January 20, 2004, respectively. As part of the rule, the FDA issued a performance standard that requires all juice receive a treatment wherein the pertinent pathogen is reduced in concentration by 100,000-fold (5-log units). The "5-log reduction standard'' was established based on recommendations by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF). NACMCF considered worst-case scenarios, such as might occur if apples were contaminated directly with bovine feces. The committee included a 100-fold safety factor in their recommendation for a 5-log reduction process to ensure the safety of juice. The FDA also considered regulatory precedence when setting the 5-log pathogen reduction performance standard. This same standard is also required for E. coli O157:H7 reduction in fermented sausage, and FDA has advised that a 5-log process for salmonella should be used for in-shell pasteurization of eggs .
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