Introduction

Study of patulin's toxicity began over 60 years ago when the compound was first isolated from Penicillium patulum (now called P. griseofulvum) and found to possess antimicrobial properties. Patulin was later isolated from other fungal species and given the names clavacin, claviformin, expansin, mycoin, and penicidin [35]. During the 1940s research was aimed at finding pharmaceutical uses for patulin. For example, patulin was tested as a treatment for the common cold as well as an ointment for treating fungal infections [36]. However, animal studies revealed that, in addition to antibiotic properties, patulin also possessed toxic effects [37,38].

Research on the toxicological properties of patulin has shown the compound to be acutely toxic in animals and to have possible genotoxic, immunotoxic, and teratogenic effects. Patulin toxicity data have been reviewed in detail [38-40]. In addition, the FDA [19] independently reviewed the available information on patulin toxicity.

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