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no greater than a 3 log reduction [74]. Penetration of heat into the fruit was measured during the study. Subsurface fruit temperatures remained significantly lower than treatment temperatures even after 60 seconds of exposure. Consequently the lower level of pathogen reduction achieved using an immersion method of inoculation implies penetration of the pathogen into the fruit.

With apples, pathogen internalization into the tissue can occur. Typical processing conditions used ensure a reasonable likelihood of its occurrence. Consequently, to ensure that all pathogens in noncitrus fruit juice received an intervention treatment sufficient to result in the prescribed 5 log reduction, the FDA ruled that the intervention must occur after the juice is expressed. For fruit such as citrus, internalization potential or likelihood was not as clearly defined. In December 1999 the FDA asked NACMCF to consider the potential for internalization of microorganisms into citrus fruit [75]. Data were considered that demonstrated the internalization and survival potential of artificially inoculated foodborne pathogens in seemingly intact oranges [76,77]. NACMCF concluded that although laboratory evidence indicated potential internalization in sound, intact citrus fruit, there was no demonstrated evidence that such internalization was likely under current industry practices. As a result of NACMCF conclusions, the FDA determined that the 5 log pathogen intervention treatment in citrus juice can be applied prior to extraction, providing only tree-picked, sound, intact fruits are used. The fruit must be cleaned and culled prior to the 5 log intervention treatment.

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