Whipp, S.C., Rasmussen, M.A., and Cray, W.C., Public veterinary medicine: food safety and handling. Animals as a source of Escherichia coli pathogenic for human beings, J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 204, 1168-1175, 1994. Zhao, T., Doyle, M.E., Shere, J., and Garber, L., Prevalence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a survey of dairy herds, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61, 1290-1293, 1995.
Hancock, D.D., Rice, D.H., Herriott, D.E., Besser, T.E., Ebel, E.D., and Carpenter, L.V., Effects of farm manure-handling practices on Escherichia coli O157:H7 prevalence in cattle, J. Food Prot., 60, 363-366, 1997. Tauxe, R.V., Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 3, 425-434, 1997.
Rice, D.H. and Besser, T.E., Verotoxigenic E. coli O157 colonisation of wild deer and range cattle, Vet. Rec., 137, 524, 1995.
Wallace, J.S., Cheasty, T., and Jones, K., Isolation of vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 from wild birds, J. Appl. Microbiol., 82, 399-404, 1997.
44. Janisiewicz, W.J., Conway, W.S., Brown, M.W., Sapers, G.M., Fratamico, P.M., and Buchanan, R.L., Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut apple tissue and its potential for transmission by fruit flies, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65, 1-5, 1999.
45. Centers for Disease Control, Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections associated with drinking unpasteurized commercial apple juice: October 1996, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep., 45, 975, 1996.
46. Deliganis, C.V., Death by apple juice: the problem of foodborne illness, the regulatory response, and further suggestions for reform, Food Drug Law J., 53, 681-728, 1998.
47. Buchanan, R.L. and Edelson, S.G., Culturing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of glucose as a simple means of evaluating the acid tolerance of stationary-phase cells, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 62, 40094013, 1996.
48. Centers for Disease Control, Salmonellosis, http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/ diseaseinfo/salmonellosis_t.htm, 2002.
49. Anon., FDA Warns Consumers About Frozen Mamey, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/tpmamey.html, 1999.
50. Centers for Disease Control, Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Muenchen infections associated with unpasteurized orange juice: United States and Canada June 1999, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep., 48, 582-585, 1999.
51. Cook, K.A., Dobbs, T.E., Hlady, W.G., Wells, J.G., Bearrett, T.J., Puhr, N.D., Lancette, G.A., Bodager, D.W., Toth, B.L., Genese, C.A., Hoighsmith, A.K., Pilot, K.E., Finelli, L., and Swerdlow, D.L., Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Hartford infections associated with unpastuerized orange juice, JAMA, 280, 1504-1509, 1998.
52. Krause, G., Terzagian, R., and Hammond, R., Outbreak of Salmonella serotype Anatum infection associated with unpasteurized orange juice, South. Med. J., 94, 1168-1172, 2001.
53. Parish, M.E., Narcisco, J.A., and Fredrich, L.M., Survival of Salmonellae in orange juice, J. Food Saf, 17, 273-281, 1997.
54. Centers for Disease Control, Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection and cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking unpasteurized apple cider: Connecticut and New York, October 1996, Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep., 46,4-8,1997.
55. Millard, P.S., Gensheimer, K.F., Addiss, D.G., Sosin, D.M., Beckett, G.A., Houck-Jankoski, A., and Hudson, A., An outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis from fresh-pressed apple cider, jama, 272, 1592-1596, 1994.
56. Guerrant, R.L., Cryptosporidiosis: an emerging highly infectious threat, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 3, 51-57, 1997.
57. Cox, L.J., Kleiss, T., Cordier, J.L., Cordellana, C., Konel, P., Pedrazzini, C., Beumer, R., and Siebenga, A., Listeria spp. in food processing, non-food and domestic environments, Food Microbiol., 6, 49-61, 1989.
58. Fenlon, D.R., Wilson, J., and Donachie, W., The incidence and level of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of food sources at primary production and initial processing, J. Appl. Bacteriol., 81, 641-650, 1996.
59. Beuchat, L.R., Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce, J. FoodProt., 59, 204-216, 1995.
60. Sorrells, K.M., Enigl, D.C., and Hatfield, J.R., Effect of pH, acidulant, time, and temperature on the growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes, J. Food Prot., 52, 571-573, 1989.
Beuchat, L.R. and Brackett, R.E., Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into raw tomatoes and processed tomato products, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 57, 1367-1371, 1991.
Sado, P.N., Jinneman, K.C., Husby, G.J., Sorg, S.M., and Omiecinski, C.J., Identification of Listeria monocytogenes from unpasteurized apple juice using rapid test kits, J. Food Prot., 61, 1199-1202, 1998.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Quantitative Assessment of Relative Risk to Public Health from Foodborne Listeria Monocytogenes Among Selected Categories of Ready-to-Eat Foods, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/lmr2-toc.html, 2003.
Pao, S. and Davis, C.L., Transfer of natural and artificially inoculated microorganisms from orange fruit to fresh juice during extraction, J. Food Sci. Technol. India, 34, 113-117, 2001.
Martinez-Gonzales, N.E., Hernandez-Herrera, A., Martinez-Chavez, L., Rodriguez-Garcia, M.O., Torres-Vitela, M.R., Mota de la Garza, L., and Castillo, A., Spread of bacterial pathogens during preparation of freshly squeezed orange juice, J. Food Prot., 66, 1490-1494, 2003. Burnett, S.L. and Beuchat, L.R., Human pathogens associated with raw produce and unpasteurized juices, and difficulties in decontamination, J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 27, 104-110, 2001.
Buchanan, R.L., Edelson, S.G., Miller, R.L., and Sapers, G.M., Contamination of intact apples after immersion in an aqueous environment containing Escherichia coli O157:H7, J. Food Prot., 62, 444-450, 1999. Wright, J.R., Sumner, S.S., Hackney, C.R., Pierson, M.D., and Zoecklein, B.W., Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apples using wash and chemical sanitizer treatments, Dairy Food Environ. Sanit., 20, 120-126, 2000. Wisniewsky, M.A., Glatz, B.A., Gleason, M.L., and Reitmeier, C.A., Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 counts on whole fresh apples by treatment with sanitizers, J. Food Prot., 63, 703-708, 2000.
Ukuku, D.O., Pilizota, V., and Sapers, G.M., Influence of washing treatment on native microflora and Escherichia coli population of inoculated cantaloupes, J. Food Saf., 21, 31-47, 2001.
Sapers, G.M. and Simmons, G.F., Hydrogen peroxide disinfection of minimally processed fruits and vegetables, Food Technol., 52, 48-52, 1998. Kenney, S.J. and Beuchat, L.R., Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Muenchen on apples as affected by application of commercial fruit waxes, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 77, 223-231, 2001.
Kenney, S.J. and Beuchat, L.R., Comparison of aqueous commercial cleaners for effectiveness in removing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella muenchen from the surface of apples, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 74, 47-55, 2002.
Fleischman, G.J., Bator, C., Merker, R., and Keller, S.E., Hot water immersion to eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the surface of whole apples: thermal effects and efficacy, J. Food Prot., 64, 451-455, 2001.
Anon., National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods: Meeting on Fresh Citrus Juice: Transcript of Proceedings. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/tr991208.html, 1999.
Eblen, B.S., Walderhaug, M.O., Edelson-Mammel, S., Chirtel, S.J., De Jesus, A., Merker, R.I., Buchanan, R.L., and Miller, A.J., Potential for internalization, growth and survival of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in oranges, J. Food Prot., 67, 1578-1584, 2004.
77. Walderhaug, M.O., Edelson-Mammel, S.G., DeJesus, A.J., Eblen, B.S., Miller, A.J., and Buchanan, R.L., Preliminary studies on the potential for infiltration, growth and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Hartford and Escherichia coli O157:H7 within oranges, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/juicstud.html, 1999.
78. Mak, P.P., Ingham, B.H., and Ingham, S.C., Validation of apple cider pasteurization treatments against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes, J. Food Prot., 64, 1679-1689, 2001.
79. Splittstoesser, D.F., McLellan, M.R., and Churey, J.J., Heat resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice, J. Food Prot., 59, 226-229, 1995.
80. Deng, M.Q. and Cliver, D.O., Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in cider by flash pasteurization, J. Food Prot., 64, 523-527, 2001.
81. Mazzotta, A.S., Thermal inactivation of stationary-phase and acid adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in fruit juices, J. Food Prot., 64, 315-320, 2001.
82. Chang, J.C.H., Ossoff, S.F., Lobe, D.C., Dorfman, M.H., Dumais, C.M., Qualls, R.G., and Johnson, J.D., UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 49, 1361-1365, 1985.
83. Hanes, D.E., Orlandi, P.A., Burr, D.H., Miliotis, M.D., Robi, M.G., Bier, J.W., Jackson, G.J., Arrowood, M.J., Churey, J.J., and Worobo, R.W., Inactivation of Crytosporidium parvum oocysts in fresh apple cider using ultraviolet irradiation, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68, 4168-4172, 2002.
84. Duffy, S., Churey, J., Worobo, R., and Schaffner, D.W., Analysis and modeling of the variability associated with UV inactivation of Escherichia coli in apple cider, J. Food Prot., 63, 1587-1590, 2000.
85. Harrington, W.O. and Hills, C.H., Reduction of the microbial population of apple cider by ultraviolet irradiation, Food Technol., 22, 117-120, 1968.
86. Wright, J.R., Sumner, S.S., Hackney, C.R., Pierson, M.D., and Zoecklein, B.W., Efficacy of ultraviolet light for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in unpasteurized apple cider, J. Food Prot., 63, 563-567, 2000.
87. Anon., Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies, Institute of Food Technologists, http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/ ~comm/ift-pref.html, 2000.
88. Liltved, H. and Cripps, S.J., Removal of particle-associated bacteria by prefiltration and ultraviolet irradiation, Aquacult. Res., 30, 445-450, 1999.
89. Qualls, R.G., Flynn, M.P., and Johnson, J.D., The role of suspended particles in ultraviolet disinfection, J. WPCF, 55, 1280-1285, 1983.
90. Shama, G., Ultraviolet irradiation apparatus for disinfecting liquids of high ultraviolet absorptivities, Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 15, 69-72, 1992.
91. Whitby, G.E. and Palmateer, G., The effect of UV transmission, suspended solids and photoreactivation on microorganisms in wastewater treated with UV light, Water Sci. Technol., 27, 379-386, 1993.
92. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 21 CFR Part 179, Irradiation in the production, processing and handling of food, Fed. Regist., 65, 71056-71058, 2000.
93. Comes, J.E. and Beelman, R.B., Addition of fumaric acid and sodium benzoate as an alternative method to achieve a 5-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in apple cider, J. Food Prot., 65, 476-483, 2002.
94. Uljas, H.E. and Ingham, S.C., Combinations of intervention treatments resulting in a 5-log10-unit reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 organisms in apple cider, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65, 1924-1929, 1999.
95. Ingham, S.C. and Schoeller, N.P., Acceptability of a multi-step intervention system to improve apple cider safety, Food Res. Int., 35, 611-618, 2002.
96. Pao, S., Davis, C.L., and Parish, M.E., Microscopic observation and processing validation of fruit sanitizing treatments for the enhanced microbiological safety of fresh orange juice, J. Food Prot., 64, 310-314, 2001.
Was this article helpful?