Info

22. Perombelon, M.C.M. and Kelman, A., Ecology of the soft rot Erwinia, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 18, 361, 1980.

23. Farrar, J.J., Nunez, J.J., and Davis, R.M., Influence of soil saturation and temperature on Erwinia chrysanthemi soft rot of carrot, Plant Dis., 84, 665, 2000.

24. Hsu, S.-T. and Tzeng, K.-C., Species of Erwinia associated with soft rot disease of plant in Taiwan, in Proceedings 5th International Conference Plant Pathology Bacteria, Lozano, J.C., Ed., CIAT, Cali, Columbia, 1981, p. 9.

25. Cuppels, D. and Kelman, A., Evaluation of selective media for isolation of soft-rot bacteria from soil and plant tissue, Phytopathology, 64, 469, 1974.

26. Burr, T.J. and Schroth, M.N., Occurrence of soft-rot Erwinia spp. in soil and plant material, Phytopathology, 67, 1382, 1977.

27. Lelliott, R.A., Billing, E., and Hayward, A.C., A determinative scheme for the fluorescent plant pathogenic pseudomonads, J. Appl. Bacteriol., 29, 470, 1966.

Sands, D.C. and Hankin, L., Ecology and physiology of fluorescent pectolytic pseudomonads, Phytopathology, 65, 921, 1975.

Fahy, P.C. and Lloyd, A.B., Pseudomonas: the fluorescent pseudomonads, in Plant Bacterial Diseases: A Diagnostic Guide, Fahy, P.C. and Persley, G.J., Eds., Academic Press, Australia, 1983, chap 8.

Babic, I., et al., Changes in microbial populations of fresh cut spinach, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 31, 107, 1996.

Magnuson, J.A., King, A.D., Jr., and Torok, T., Microflora of partially processed lettuce, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 56, 3851, 1990. Bolin, H.R. et al., Factors affecting the storage stability of shredded lettuce, J. Food Sci, 42, 1319, 1977.

King, A.D., Jr. et al., Microbial flora and storage quality of partially processed lettuce, J. Food Sci., 56, 459, 1991.

Chesson, A., The fungal and bacterial flora of stored white cabbage, J. Appl. Bacteriol., 46, 189, 1979.

Garg, N., Churey, J.J., and Splittstoesser, D.F., Effect of processing conditions on the microflora of fresh-cut vegetables, J. Food Prot., 53, 701, 1990.

Bartz, J.A., Causes of postharvest losses in a Florida tomato shipment, Plant Dis., 64, 934, 1980.

Coplin, D.L., Erwinia carotovora var. carotovora on bell peppers in Ohio, Plant Dis, 64, 191, 1980.

Cuppels, D.A. and Kelman, A., Isolation of pectolytic fluorescent pseudomonads from soil and potatoes, Phytopathology, 70, 1110, 1980. Hagar, S.S. and McIntyre, G.A., Pectic enzymes produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens, an organism associated with ''pink eye'' disease of potato tubers, Can. J. Botany, 50, 2479, 1972.

Cother, E.J., Darbyshire, B., and Brewer, J., Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cause of internal brown rot of onion, Phytopathology, 66, 828, 1976. De Boer, S.H., Allan, E., and Kelman, A., Survival of Erwinia carotovora in Wisconsin soils, Am. Potato J., 56, 243, 1979.

McCarter-Zorner, N.J. et al., Soft rot Erwinia bacteria in the rhizosphere of weeds and crop plants in Colorado, United States and Scotland, J. Appl. Bacteriol., 59, 357, 1985.

Gill, C.O. and Tan, K.H., Effect of carbon dioxide on growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 38, 237, 1979.

Wells, J.M., Growth of Erwinia carotovora, E. atroseptica, and Pseudomonas fluorescens in low oxygen and high carbon dioxide atmosphere, Phytopathology, 64, 1012, 1974.

Samish, Z. and Etinger-Tulczynska, R., Distribution of bacteria within the tissue of healthy tomatoes, Appl. Microbiol., 11, 7, 1963. Meneley, J.C. and Stanghellini, M.E., Establishment of an inactive population of Erwinia carotovora in healthy cucumber fruit, Phytopathlogy, 65, 670, 1975.

Bartz, J.A. and Showalter, R.K., Infiltration of tomatoes by aqueous bacterial suspensions, Phytopathology, 71, 515, 1981.

Bartz, J.A. and Kelman, A., Bacterial soft rot potential in washed potato tubers in relation to temperatures of tubers and water during simulated commercial handling practices, Am. Potato J., 61, 485, 1984.

49. Buchanan, R.L. et al., Contamination of intact apples after immersion in an aqueous environment containing Escherichia coli O157:H7, J. Food Prot., 62, 444, 1999.

50. Burnett, S.L., Chen, J., and Beuchat, L.R., Attachment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the surfaces and internal structures of apples as detected by confocal scanning laser microscopy, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 66, 4679, 2000.

51. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration), Preliminary studies on the potential for infiltration, growth and survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Hartford and Escherichia coli O157:H7 within oranges, http://vm.cfsan.fad.gov/ %7Ecomm/juicsstud.html, accessed Jan. 27, 2000.

52. Takeuchi, K., Hassan, A.N., and Frank, J.F., Penetration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce as influenced by modified atmosphere and temperature, J. Food Prot., 64, 1820, 2001.

53. Wachtel, M.R, Whitehand, L.C., and Mandrell, R.E., Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with preharvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water, J. Food Prot., 65, 18, 2002.

54. Solomon, E.B., Yaron, S., and Matthews, K.R., Transmission of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water to lettuce plant tissue and its subsequent internalization, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 68, 397, 2002.

55. Zhuang, R.-Y., Beuchat, L.R., and Angulo, F.J., Fate of Salmonella Montevideo on and in raw tomatoes as affected by temperature and treatment with chlorine, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61, 2127, 1995.

56. Liao, C.-H. and Sapers, G.M., Attachment and growth of Salmonella Chester on apple fruits and in vivo response of attached bacteria to sanitizer treatments, J Food Prot., 63, 876, 2000.

57. Liao, C.-H. and Cooke, P.H., Response to trisodium phosphate treatment of Salmonella Chester attached to fresh-cut pepper slices, Can. J. Microbiol., 47, 25, 2001.

58. Collmer, A., Ried, J.L., and Mount, M.S., Assay methods for pectic enzymes, Methods Enzymol., 161, 329, 1988.

59. Ried, J.L. and Collmer, A., Activity stain for rapid characterization of pectic enzymes in isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, Appl. Environ., Microbiol., 50, 615, 1985.

60. Kelemu, S. and Collmer, A., Erwinia chrysanthemi EC16 produces a second set of plant-inducible pectate lyase isoenzymes, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 59, 1756, 1993.

61. Kotoujansky, A., Molecular genetics of pathogenesis by soft-rot erwinias, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 25, 405, 1987.

62. Barras, F., van Gijsegem, F., and Chatterjee, A.K., Extracellular enzymes and pathogenesis of soft-rot Erwinia, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 32, 201, 1994.

63. Py, B. et al., Extracellular enzymes and their role in Erwinia virulence, Methods Microbiol., 27, 157, 1998.

64. Payne, J.H. et al., Multiplication and virulence in plant tissue of Escherichia coli clones producing pectate lyase isozymes PLb and PLe at high levels and an Erwinia chrysanthemi mutant deficient in PLe, Appl Environ. Microbiol., 53, 2315, 1987.

65. Liao, C.-H., Analysis of pectate lyase produced by soft rot bacteria associated with spoilage of vegetables, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 55, 1677, 1989.

Liao, C.-H., Hung, H.Y., and Chatterjee, A.K., An extracellular pectate lyase is the pathogenicity factor of the soft-rotting bacterium Pseudomonas viridiflava, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 1, 199, 1988.

Liao, C.-H. et al., Biochemical characterization of pectate lyases produced by fluorescent pseudomonads associated with spoilage of fresh fruits and vegetables, J. Appl. Microbiol., 83, 10, 1997.

Collmer, A., and Keen, N.T., The role of pectic enzymes in plant pathogenesis, Ann. Rev. Phytopathol., 24, 383, 1986.

McEvoy, J.L., Murata, H., and Chatterjee, A.K., Molecular cloning and characterization of an Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora pectin lyase gene that respond to DNA-damaging agents, J. Bacteriol., 166, 172, 1984. Sone, H. et al., Production and properties of pectin lyase in Pseudomonas marginalis induced by mitomycin C, Agric. Biol. Chem., 52, 3205, 1988. Liao, C.-H., Cloning of pectate lyase gene pel from Pseudomonas fluorescens and detection of sequences homologous to pel in Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas putida, J. Bacteriol., 173, 4386, 1991.

Liao, C.-H. et al., Cloning and characterization of a pectate lyase gene from the soft-rotting bacterium Pseudomonas viridiflava, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 5, 301, 1992.

Liao, C.-H. et al., Cloning of a pectate lyase gene from Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum and comparison of its sequence relationship with pel genes of soft-rot Erwinia and Pseudomonas, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 9, 14, 1996.

Liao, C.-H., McCallus, D.E., and Fett, W.F., Molecular characterization of two gene loci required for production of the key pathogenicity factor pectate lyase in Pseudomonas viridiflava, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 7, 391, 1994. Liao, C.-H. et al., Identification of gene loci controlling pectate lyase production and soft-rot pathogenicity in Pseudomonas marginalis, Can. J. Microbiol., 43, 425, 1997.

Liao, C.-H. et al., The repB gene required for production of extracellular enzymes and fluorescent siderophores in Pseudomonas viridiflava is an analog of the gacA gene of Pseudomonas syringae, Can. J. Microbiol., 42, 177, 1996. Sacherer, P., Defago, G., and Haas, D., Extracellular protease and phosphlipase C are controlled by the global regulatory gene gacA in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 116, 155, 1994. Woods, R.G. et al., The aprX-lipA operon of Pseudomonas fluorescens B52: a molecular analysis of metalloprotease and lipase production, Microbiology 147, 345, 2001.

Laville, J. et al., Global control in Pseudomonas fluorescens mediating antibiotic synthesis and suppression of black root rot of tobacco, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 1562, 1992.

Gaffney, T.D., et al., Global regulation of expression of anti-fungal factors by a Pseudomonas fluorescens biological control strain, Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 7, 455, 1994.

Corbell, N. and Loper, J.E., A global regulator of secondary metabolite production in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, J. Bacteriol., 177, 6230, 1995. Hrabak, E.M. and Willis, D.K., The lemA gene required for pathogenicity of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on bean is a member of a family of two-component regulators, J. Bacteriol., 174, 3011, 1992.

83. Whistler, C.A. et al., The two-component regulators GacS and GacA influence accumulation of stationary-phase sigma factor 8s and the stress response in Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, J. Bacteriol, 180, 6635, 1998.

84. Reimmann, C. et al., The global activator GacA of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO positively controls the production of the autoinducer N-butyryl-homo-serine lactone and the formation of the virulence factors pyocyanin, cyanide, and lipase, Mol. Microbiol., 24, 309, 1997.

85. Sandkvist, M., Biology of type II secretion, Mol. Microbiol., 40, 271, 2001.

86. Koster, M., Bitter, W., and Tommassen, J., Protein secretion mechanisms in Gram-negative bacteria, Int. J. Med. Microbiol., 290, 325, 2000.

87. Nasuno, S. and Starr, M.P., Pectic enzymes of Pseudomonas marginalis, Phytopathology, 56, 1414, 1966.

88. Fuchs, A., The trans-eliminative breakdown of Na-polygalacturonate by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol. Serol, 31, 323, 1965.

89. Zucker, M. and Hankin, L., Regulation of pectate lyase synthesis in Pseudomonas fluorescens and Erwinia carotovora, J. Bacteriol., 104, 13, 1970.

90. Zucker, M. and Hankin, L., Inducible pectate lyase synthesis and phytopatho-genicity of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Can. J. Microbiol., 17, 1313, 1971.

91. Zucker, M., Hankin, L., and Sands, D., Factors governing pectate lyase synthesis in soft rot and non-soft rot bacteria, Physiol. Plant Pathol., 2, 59, 1972.

92. Liao, C.-H., McCallus, D.E., and Wells, J.M., Calcium-dependent pectate lyase production in the soft-rotting bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, Phytopathology, 83, 813, 1993.

93. Wells, J.M., Liao, C.-H., and Hotchkiss, A.T., In vitro inhibition of soft-rotting bacteria by EDTA and nisin and in vivo response on inoculated fresh cut carrots, Plant Dis., 82, 491, 1998.

94. Zucker, M. and Hankin, L., Effectiveness of ehtylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in controlling soft rot potatoes, Plant Dis. Reptr., 54, 863, 1970.

95. McGuire, R.G. and Kelman, A., Reduced severity of Erwinia soft rot in potato tubers with increased calcium content, Phytopathology, 74, 1250, 1984.

96. Conway, W.S., and Sams, C.E., Calcium infiltration of Golden Delicious Apples and its effect on decay, Phytopathology, 73, 1068, 1983.

97. Bartz, J.A., Locascio, S.J., and Weingartner, D.P., Calcium and potassium fertilization of potatoes grown in north Florida. II. Effect on the bacterial soft rot potential in the tubers, Am. Potato J., 69, 39, 1992.

98. Conway, W.S. et al., Calcium treatment of apples and potatoes to reduce postharvest decay, Plant Dis., 76, 329, 1992.

99. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration), Analysis and evaluation of preventive control measures for the control and reduction/elimination of microbial hazards on fresh and fresh-cut produce, http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/ ~comm/ift3-1.html, accessed Jan. 15, 2002.

100. Carlin, F., Nguyen-The, C., and Abreu da Silva, A., Factors affecting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed fresh endive, J. Appl. Bacteriol., 78, 636, 1995.

101. Lund, B.M. and Snowdon, A.L., Fresh and processed fruits, in The Microbiological Safety and Quality of Food, Vol. I, Lund, B.M., Baird-Parker, T.C., and Gould, G.W., Eds., Aspen, Gaithersbrug, MD, 2000, chap. 27.

102. Conway W.S. et al., Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh-cut apples slices and its interaction with Glomerella cingulata and Penicillium expansum, Plant Dis., 84, 177, 2000.

103. Riordan, D.C.R., Sapers, G.M., and Annous, B.A., The survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the presence of Penicillium expansum and Glomerella cingulata in wounds on apple surfaces, J. Food Prot., 63, 1637, 2000.

104. Liao, C.-H. and Sapers, G.M., Influence of soft rot bacteria on growth of Listeria monocytogenes on potato tuber slices, J. Food Prot., 62, 343, 1999.

105. Carlin, F., Nguyen-The, C., and Morris, C.E., Influence of background microflora on Listeria monocytogenes on minimally processed fresh broad-leaved endive (Cichorium endivia var. latifolia), J. Food Prot., 59, 698, 1996.

106. Liao, C.-H. and Fett, W.F., Analysis of native microflora and selection of strains antagonistic to human pathogens on fresh produce, J. Food Prot., 64, 1110, 2001.

107. Francis, G.A. and O'Beirne, D., Effects of the indigenous microflora of minimally processed lettuce on the survival and growth of Listeria innocua, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 33, 477, 1998.

108. Beuchat, L.R., Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce, J. Food Prot., 59, 204, 1996.

109. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration), Guidance for industry: Guide to minimize microbial food safety hazards for fresh fruits and vegetables, www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/prodguid.htm, accessed Aug. 30, 2000.

110. IFPA, Food Safety Guidelines for the Fresh-Cut Produce Industry, 3rd ed., International Fresh-Cut Produce Association, Alexandria, VA, 1996, p. 125.

111. Eckert, J.W., and Ogawa, J.M., The chemical control of postharvest diseases: deciduous fruits, berries, vegetables and root/tuber crops, Ann. Rev., Phyto-pathol., 26, 433, 1988.

112. Liao, C.-H., and Shollenberger, L.M., Survivability and long-term preservation of bacteria in water and in phosphate-buffered saline, Lett. Appl. Microbiol., 37, 45, 2003.

113. Liao, C.-H., and Fett, W.F., Isolation of Salmonella from naturally contaminated alfalfa seeds and demonstration of impaired recovery of heat-injured cells in alfalfa seed homogenates, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 82, 245, 2003.

Organic Gardeners Composting

Organic Gardeners Composting

Have you always wanted to grow your own vegetables but didn't know what to do? Here are the best tips on how to become a true and envied organic gardner.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment