Cryptosporidium parvum

Cryptosporidium parvum is a highly infectious protozoan parasite causing persistent diarrhea. Common reservoirs are ruminants including cattle, deer, and sheep [54,55]. Infection with cryptosporidium does not always result in severe disease symptoms and the organism is far more dangerous for the immunocompromised [56]. Cryptosporidium is more commonly associated with contaminated water. The largest waterborne outbreak in U.S. history occurred in Milwaukee, WI, in 1993 and affected an estimated 403,000 people [56]. Cryptosporidium cannot replicate in the environment; however, the oocysts are thick-walled, resistant to chlorine, and persist in the environment. Presumably, the thick wall also confers some acid resistance, as outbreaks of cryptospor-idiosis have also occurred from fresh-pressed cider [54,55]. Apple cider-associated outbreaks were reported in 1993, 1996, and 2003.

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