Contents

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Produce Contamination 5

1.3 Microorganisms of Concern 7

1.4 Incidence and Association of Human Pathogens with Produce 8

1.4.1 FDA Imported Produce Survey 8

1.4.2 FDA Domestic Produce Survey 9

1.4.3 USDA Microbiological Data Program (MDP) 10

1.4.4 Produce-Associated Foodborne Illness Traceback Investigation Results 12

1.5 Potential Sources of Produce Contamination by

Human Pathogens 13

1.5.1 Food Safety Risk Factors Associated with Production of Fresh Produce 13

1.5.1.2 Soil Amendments 14

1.5.1.3 Wild and Domestic Animal Control 14

1.5.1.4 Irrigation Water 15

1.5.1.5 Harvest Operations 15

1.5.2 Food Safety Risk Factors Associated with Postharvest Handling of Produce 16

1.5.2.1 Employee Hygiene 16

1.5.2.2 Equipment 16

1.5.2.3 Wash and Hydrocooling Water 17

1.5.2.4 Cold Storage Facilities 17

1.5.2.5 Packaging Materials 18

1.5.2.6 Modified Atmosphere Packaging of

Fresh Produce 18

1.5.2.7 Refrigerated Transport, Distribution, and

Cold Storage 19

1.5.3 Food Safety Risk Factors Associated with Foodservice, Restaurant, and Retail Food Stores

Handling of Produce 20

1.5.4 Consumer Handling of Produce from Purchase to Plate 21

1.6 Effective Management Strategies: Contamination Prevention and Intervention 21

1.6.1 Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) 22

1.6.2 Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) 23

1.6.3 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 24

1.7 Research Needs 25

1.7.1 Microbial Ecology of Human Pathogens in the Agricultural Production Environment 26

1.7.2 Agricultural Water 26

1.7.3 Soil Amendments 26

1.7.4 Proximity Risk of Potential Contaminant Sources 27

1.7.5 Intervention Strategies to Reduce the Risk of

Human Pathogen Contamination of Fresh Produce 27

1.8 Summary 27

References 28

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